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Imaging and implications of tumor thrombus in abdominal malignancies: reviewing the basics

  • Khaled Y. ElbannaEmail author
  • Korosh Khalili
  • Martin O’Malley
  • Tanya Chawla
Review

Abstract

Extension of tumor tissue within a vein is a recognized prognostic factor in abdominal malignancy because of its influence on tumor staging and selection of therapeutic management. With the advent of newer surgical techniques, and variable treatment strategies, imaging plays a crucial role in categorizing patients according to the tumor resectability and vascular reconstruction techniques during surgery. Understanding the clinical impact of tumor thrombus increases the awareness of the radiologist about the key findings in tumor staging and decision-making of surgical approach. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used individually and in combination to accurately assess the tumor thrombus. In our pictorial review, we will discuss the imaging findings and clinical consequences of tumor thrombosis in abdominal malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, renal cancer, and adrenal cortical carcinoma.

Keywords

Tumour thrombus Abdomen Oncology Ultrasound Computed tomography Magnetic resonance imaging 

Notes

Funding

The authors have no relevant disclosures. There was no commercial funding for this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Joint Department of Medical ImagingUniversity Health Network, Mount Sinai Hospital and Women’s College Hospital, University of TorontoTorontoCanada

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