Imaging and implications of tumor thrombus in abdominal malignancies: reviewing the basics
Extension of tumor tissue within a vein is a recognized prognostic factor in abdominal malignancy because of its influence on tumor staging and selection of therapeutic management. With the advent of newer surgical techniques, and variable treatment strategies, imaging plays a crucial role in categorizing patients according to the tumor resectability and vascular reconstruction techniques during surgery. Understanding the clinical impact of tumor thrombus increases the awareness of the radiologist about the key findings in tumor staging and decision-making of surgical approach. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used individually and in combination to accurately assess the tumor thrombus. In our pictorial review, we will discuss the imaging findings and clinical consequences of tumor thrombosis in abdominal malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, renal cancer, and adrenal cortical carcinoma.
KeywordsTumour thrombus Abdomen Oncology Ultrasound Computed tomography Magnetic resonance imaging
The authors have no relevant disclosures. There was no commercial funding for this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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