Rectal cancer lexicon: consensus statement from the society of abdominal radiology rectal & anal cancer disease-focused panel
- 370 Downloads
Standardized terminology is critical to providing consistent reports to referring clinicians. This lexicon aims to provide a reference for terminology frequently used in rectal cancer and reflects the consensus of the Society of Abdominal Radiology Disease Focused Panel in Rectal cancer. This lexicon divided the terms into the following categories: primary tumor staging, nodal staging, treatment response, anal canal anatomy, general anatomy, and treatments.
KeywordsRectal cancer Lexicon Staging MRI Society of Abdominal Radiology Rectal & Anal Cancer Disease-Focused Panel
The authors would like to thank the following members of the Disease Focused Panel for their advice on the lexicon: Greg DePrisco, Randy Ernst, Harmeet Kaur, Chandrana Lall, Hiram Shaish and Regina Beets-Tan.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- 2.Al-Sukhni E, Milot L, Fruitman M, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI for assessment of T category, lymph node metastases, and circumferential resection margin involvement in patients with rectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of surgical oncology. Springer-Verlag. 2012;19:2212–2223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 4.Beets-Tan RGH, Lambregts DMJ, Maas M, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging for the clinical management of rectal cancer patients: recommendations from the 2012 European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) consensus meeting. Eur Radiol. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 2013. pp. 2522–2531.Google Scholar
- 10.Hugen N, Brown G, Glynne-Jones R, de Wilt JHW, Nagtegaal ID. Advances in the care of patients with mucinous colorectal cancer. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. Nature Publishing Group. 2016;13:361–369.Google Scholar
- 14.Ogura A, Konishi T, Cunningham C, et al. Neoadjuvant (Chemo)radiotherapy With Total Mesorectal Excision Only Is Not Sufficient to Prevent Lateral Local Recurrence in Enlarged Nodes: Results of the Multicenter Lateral Node Study of Patients With Low cT3/4 Rectal Cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2019;37:33–43http://ascopubs.org/doi/10.1200/JCO.18.00032.
- 18.Bhosale PR, Patnana M, Viswanathan C, Szklaruk J. The inguinal canal: anatomy and imaging features of common and uncommon masses. Radiographics. 2008;28:819–35–quiz913.Google Scholar
- 21.Aker M, Boone D, Chandramohan A, Sizer B, Motson R, Arulampalam T. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI in assessing tumor regression and identifying complete response in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer after neoadjuvant treatment. Abdominal Radiology. Springer US. 2018;43:3213–3219.Google Scholar
- 24.MORGAN CN, THOMPSON HR. Surgical anatomy of the anal canal with special reference to the surgical importance of the internal sphincter and conjoint longitudinal muscle. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. Royal College of Surgeons of England. 1956;19:88–114.Google Scholar
- 25.Nougaret S, Reinhold C, Mikhael HW, Rouanet P, Bibeau F, Brown G. The use of MR imaging in treatment planning for patients with rectal carcinoma: have you checked the “DISTANCE”? 2013;268:330–344.Google Scholar
- 26.Shank B, Enker WE, Flam MS. Gross and Microscopic Anatomy. Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine 6th edition. Hamilton, ON: BC Decker. 2003.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK13638/.
- 27.MILLIGAN E, MORGAN CN, JONES LE, OFFICER R. Classic Articles in Colonic Rectal Surgery - Surgical Anatomy of the Anal-Canal, and the Operative Treatment of Hemorrhoids (Reprinted From Lancet, Vol 2, Pg 1150-1213, 1934). Dis Colon Rectum. 1985;28:620–628.Google Scholar
- 28.Steele SR, Hull TL, Read TE, Saclarides TJ, Senagore AJ, Whitlow CB, editors. The ASCRS Textbook of Colon and Rectal Surgery. Cham: Springer International Publishing. 2016.Google Scholar
- 29.Tortora GJ, Derrickson BH. Introduction to the Human Body. John Wiley & Sons. 2011.Google Scholar
- 30.Agarwal S. Anatomy of the Pelvic Floor and Anal Sphincters. JIMSA. 2012;25:1–3.Google Scholar
- 35.Hosseini-Nik H, Hosseinzadeh K, Bhayana R, Jhaveri KS. MR imaging of the retrorectal-presacral tumors: an algorithmic approach. Abdom Imaging. Springer US. 2015;40:2630–2644.Google Scholar
- 38.Gollub MJ, Arya S, Beets-Tan RG, et al. Use of magnetic resonance imaging in rectal cancer patients: Society of Abdominal Radiology (SAR) rectal cancer disease-focused panel (DFP) recommendations 2017. Abdominal Radiology. Springer US. 2018;92:148–10.Google Scholar
- 39.Huang A, Zhao H, Ling T, Quan Y, Zheng M, Feng B. Oncological superiority of extralevator abdominoperineal resection over conventional abdominoperineal resection: a meta-analysis. Int J Colorectal Dis. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 2014;29:321–327.Google Scholar
- 40.Denost Q, Rullier E. Intersphincteric Resection Pushing the Envelope for Sphincter Preservation. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. Thieme Medical Publishers. 2017;30:368–376.Google Scholar
- 41.Shirouzu K, Murakami N, Akagi Y. Intersphincteric resection for very low rectal cancer: A review of the updated literature. Ann Gastroenterol Surg. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2017;1:24–32.Google Scholar