Abdominal Radiology

, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 1103–1119 | Cite as

Abdominal and pelvic imaging findings associated with sex hormone abnormalities

  • Nicole Kurzbard-Roach
  • Priyanka JhaEmail author
  • Liina Poder
  • Christine Menias


Hormones are substances that serve as chemical communication between cells. They are unique biological molecules that affect multiple organ systems and play a key role in maintaining homoeostasis. In this role, they are usually produced from a single organ and have defined target organs. However, hormones can affect non-target organs as well. As such, biochemical and hormonal abnormalities can be associated with anatomic changes in multiple target as well as non-target organs. Hormone-related changes may take the form of an organ parenchymal abnormality, benign neoplasm, or even malignancy. Given the multifocal action of hormones, the observed imaging findings may be remote from the site of production, and may actually be multi-organ in nature. Anatomic findings related to hormone level abnormalities and/or laboratory biomarker changes may be identified with imaging. The purpose of this image-rich review is to sensitize radiologists to imaging findings in the abdomen and pelvis that may occur in the context of hormone abnormalities, focusing primarily on sex hormones and their influence on these organs.


Hormone Reproductive endocrinology Estrogen Ultrasound MRI 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiology and Biomedical ImagingUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyMayo ClinicScottsdaleUSA

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