Abdominal Radiology

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 264–271 | Cite as

Improvement of prostate cancer detection combining a computer-aided diagnostic system with TRUS-MRI targeted biopsy

  • Riccardo Campa
  • Maurizio Del Monte
  • Giovanni Barchetti
  • Martina Pecoraro
  • Vincenzo Salvo
  • Isabella Ceravolo
  • Elena Lucia Indino
  • Antonio Ciardi
  • Carlo Catalano
  • Valeria PanebiancoEmail author



To validate a novel consensus method, called target-in-target, combining human analysis of mpMRI with automated CAD system analysis, with the aim to increasing the prostate cancer detection rate of targeted biopsies.


A cohort of 420 patients was enrolled and 253 patients were rolled out, due to exclusion criteria. 167 patients, underwent diagnostic 3T MpMRI. Two expert radiologists evaluated the exams adopting PI-RADSv2 and CAD system. When a CAD target overlapped with a radiologic one, we performed the biopsy in the overlapping area which we defined as target-in-target. Targeted TRUS-MRI fusion biopsy was performed in 63 patients with a total of 212 targets. The MRI data of all targets were quantitatively analyzed, and diagnostic findings were compared to pathologist’s biopsy reports.


CAD system diagnostic performance exhibited sensitivity and specificity scores of 55.2% and 74.1% [AUC = 0.63 (0.54 ÷ 0.71)] , respectively. Human readers achieved an AUC value, in ROC analysis, of 0.71 (0.63 ÷ 0.79). The target-in-target method provided a detection rate per targeted biopsy core of 81.8 % vs. a detection rate per targeted biopsy core of 68.6 % for pure PI-RADS based on target definitions. The higher per-core detection rate of the target-in-target approach was achieved irrespective of the presence of technical flaws and artifacts.


A novel consensus method combining human reader evaluation with automated CAD system analysis of mpMRI to define prostate biopsy targets was shown to improve the detection rate per biopsy core of TRUS-MRI fusion biopsies. Results suggest that the combination of CAD system analysis and human reader evaluation is a winning strategy to improve targeted biopsy efficiency.


Prostate cancer Multiparametric MRI TRUS/MRI fusion biopsy Interventional radiology Prostate biopsy Computer-aided diagnosis 


Compliance with ethical standards


No funding was received for this research.

Conflict of interest

All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the institutional board and the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Riccardo Campa
    • 1
  • Maurizio Del Monte
    • 1
  • Giovanni Barchetti
    • 1
  • Martina Pecoraro
    • 1
  • Vincenzo Salvo
    • 1
  • Isabella Ceravolo
    • 1
  • Elena Lucia Indino
    • 1
  • Antonio Ciardi
    • 1
  • Carlo Catalano
    • 1
  • Valeria Panebianco
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and PathologySapienza University of RomeRomeItaly

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