Extramural venous invasion in rectal cancer: overview of imaging, histopathology, and clinical implications
Extramural venous invasion (EMVI) is an independent prognostic factor for prediction of overall unfavorable outcomes in rectal cancer. While EMVI has traditionally been detected in postoperative pathologic specimens, MRI can provide this important piece of information preoperatively. This article reviews the methods of EMVI detection and their clinical implications for treatment and outcomes of rectal cancer.
EMVI has fundamental implications for rectal cancer prognosis and long-term outcomes. Since MRI has the advantage of preoperative detection of EMVI, it has been suggested that MRI-detected EMVI be incorporated for preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) treatment stratification of rectal cancer for better patient triage and outcomes.
Key wordsExtramural venous invasion (EMVI) Histopathology MRI Rectal cancer Cancer staging Chemoradiation therapy
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Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
Research involving human participants and/or animals
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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