Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor: review of heterogeneous spectrum of CT appearance
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are uncommon pancreatic neoplasms and can be a diagnostic challenge with heterogeneous spectrum of CT appearance. We review CT findings of PanNETs and other mimics.
PanNETs are typically hypervascular and have avid enhancement on arterial and venous phase images. However, dedicated pancreas protocol may be needed due to their sometimes atypical appearance including transient enhancement. Careful evaluation of CT findings will help differentiate PanNETs from their mimics, and can be used to establish the diagnosis of a PanNETs. Although an accurate diagnosis can be based on serological, urine, and CT scan findings, confirmation is made via pathological examination.
KeywordsCT Neoplasm Tumor Pancreas Neuroendocrine neoplasms Neuroendocrine tumors
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Nam Ju Lee, MD, MMs; Ralph H. Hruban, MD; and Elliot K. Fishman MD declare that they have no relevant conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. No IRB approval was required.
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