Advertisement

Abdominal Radiology

, Volume 43, Issue 11, pp 3068–3074 | Cite as

Prevalence of renal cysts and association with risk factors in a general population: an MRI-based study

  • Birger Mensel
  • Jens-Peter Kühn
  • Felix Kracht
  • Henry Völzke
  • Wolfgang Lieb
  • Thomas Dabers
  • Roberto Lorbeer
Article
  • 123 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

To assess the prevalence and size of renal cysts and to analyze associated risk factors in a general population using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods

Data of 2063 participants (1052 women) of the Study of Health in Pomerania who underwent whole-body MRI were included. Renal cyst prevalence was calculated separately for men and women and for 10-year age groups. The association between risk factors and occurrence of renal cysts was estimated.

Results

The prevalence of renal cysts was 27% and higher in men (34%) than in women (21%; p < 0.001). Renal cyst prevalence increased from 14% in the youngest age group (20–29 years) to 55% in the oldest age group (≥ 70 years) for men and from 7% to 43% for women (both p < 0.001). In the subset of participants with renal cysts, the total mean number was higher in men (1.9) compared to women (1.6, p = 0.012) and was significantly associated with age. Mean renal cyst size was higher in men (1.50 cm) compared to women (1.18 cm, p < 0.001). Male sex (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.47; 2.26), older age (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.04; 1.06, per 1-year increment), and hypertension (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.00; 1.61) were associated with higher renal cyst prevalence. In additional analyses, current smoking and ex-smoking showed a significantly higher risk for renal cysts (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.05; 2.05 and OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.04; 1.82, respectively).

Conclusions

The prevalence, number, and mean size of renal cysts are higher in men compared to women and are associated with age. In addition, renal cyst prevalence is higher in hypertensive and smoking subjects.

Keywords

Population-based study Renal cysts Risk factors Magnetic resonance imaging 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The Community Medicine Research network of the University of Greifswald, Germany, covers several research projects that share data from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP; http://ship.community-medicine.de). The contributions to data collection made by field workers, technicians, interviewers, and computer assistants are gratefully acknowledged.

Compliance with ethical standards

Funding

SHIP is part of the Community Medicine Research Net of the University of Greifswald, Germany, which is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (01ZZ9603, 01ZZ0103, 01ZZ0403, 01ZZ0701, 03ZIK012), the Ministry of Cultural Affairs as well as the Social Ministry of the Federal State of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. Whole-body MR imaging was supported by a joint grant from Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany, and the Federal State of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. The University of Greifswald is a member of the ‘Center of Knowledge Interchange’ program of Siemens AG. Contrast-enhanced MRI research is part of the entire whole-body MRI study and was supported by Bayer Healthcare. Furthermore, this work is part of the research project Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine (GANI_MED). The GANI_MED consortium is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research and as well as by the Ministry of Cultural Affairs of the German Federal State of Mecklenburg—West Pomerania (03IS2061A). This study was further supported by the DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from each participant included in the study.

References

  1. 1.
    Wood CG 3rd, Stromberg LJ 3rd, Harmath CB, et al. (2015) CT and MR imaging for evaluation of cystic renal lesions and diseases. Radiographics 35:125–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mosharafa AA (2008) Prevalence of renal cysts in a Middle-Eastern population: an evaluation of characteristics and risk factors. BJU Int 101:736–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Choi JD (2016) Clinical characteristics and long-term observation of simple renal cysts in a healthy Korean population. Int Urol Nephrol 48:319–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pedersen JF, Emamian SA, Nielsen MB (1993) Simple renal cyst: relations to age and arterial blood pressure. Br J Radiol 66:581–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Carrim ZI, Murchison JT (2003) The prevalence of simple renal and hepatic cysts detected by spiral computed tomography. Clin Radiol 58:626–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nascimento AB, Mitchell DG, Zhang XM, et al. (2001) Rapid MR imaging detection of renal cysts: age-based standards. Radiology 221:628–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ozveren B, Onganer E, Turkeri LN (2016) Simple renal cysts: prevalence, associated risk factors and follow-up in a health screening cohort. Urol J 13:2569–2575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Safouh M, Crocker JF, Vernier RL (1970) Experimental cystic disease of the kidney. Sequential, functional, and morphologic studies. Lab Invest 23:392–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wahlqvist L (1967) Cystic disorders of the kidney: review of pathogenesis and classification. J Urol 97:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Heggo O (1966) A microdissection study of cystic disease of the kidneys in adults. J Pathol Bacteriol 91:311–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chang CC, Kuo JY, Chan WL, Chen KK, Chang LS (2007) Prevalence and clinical characteristics of simple renal cyst. J Chin Med Assoc 70:486–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ozdemir AA, Kapucu K (2016) The relationship between simple renal cysts and glomerular filtration rate in the elderly. Int Urol Nephrol 49:313–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tada S, Yamagishi J, Kobayashi H, Hata Y, Kobari T (1983) The incidence of simple renal cyst by computed tomography. Clin Radiol 34:437–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Terada N, Arai Y, Kinukawa N, Yoshimura K, Terai A (2004) Risk factors for renal cysts. BJU Int 93:1300–1302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Volzke H, Alte D, Schmidt CO, et al. (2011) Cohort profile: the study of health in Pomerania. Int J Epidemiol 40:294–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schmidt CO, Sierocinski E, Hegenscheid K, et al. (2016) Impact of whole-body MRI in a general population study. Eur J Epidemiol 31:31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hegenscheid K, Kuhn JP, Volzke H, et al. (2009) Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging of healthy volunteers: pilot study results from the population-based SHIP study. Rofo 181:748–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Israel GM, Hindman N, Bosniak MA (2004) Evaluation of cystic renal masses: comparison of CT and MR imaging by using the Bosniak classification system. Radiology 231:365–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Levey AS, Bosch JP, Lewis JB, et al. (1999) A more accurate method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine: a new prediction equation. Modification of diet in renal disease study group. Ann Intern Med 130:461–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hennings A, Hannemann A, Rettig R, et al. (2016) Circulating angiopoietin-2 and its soluble receptor tie-2 concentrations are related to renal function in two population-based cohorts. PLoS ONE 11:e0166492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Caglioti A, Esposito C, Fuiano G, et al. (1993) Prevalence of symptoms in patients with simple renal cysts. BMJ 306:430–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tabei SM, Nariman A, Daliri K, et al. (2015) Simple renal cysts and hypertension are associated with angiotensinogen (AGT) gene variant in Shiraz population (Iran). J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 16:409–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and NeuroradiologyUniversity Medicine GreifswaldGreifswaldGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Community MedicineUniversity Medicine GreifswaldGreifswaldGermany
  3. 3.DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site GreifswaldGreifswaldGermany
  4. 4.DZD (German Centre for Diabetes Research)GreifswaldGermany
  5. 5.Institute of EpidemiologyChristian Albrecht UniversityKielGermany
  6. 6.Department of Internal Medicine, NephrologyUniversity Medicine GreifswaldGreifswaldGermany
  7. 7.Department of RadiologyUniversity Hospital, LMUMunichGermany
  8. 8.German Center for Cardiovascular Disease Research (DZHK E.V.)MunichGermany

Personalised recommendations