Osteoporosis, obesity, and sarcopenia on abdominal CT: a review of epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, and management strategies for the reporting radiologist
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Abdominal computed tomography (CT) is a widely performed examination, with many indications. Assessment of bone, fat, and muscle on abdominal CT can be performed in a quantitative manner. Published studies have developed diagnostic cutoffs for osteoporosis, obesity, and sarcopenia, which are summarized with pictorial examples. The epidemiological and prognostic significance of these disease states are outlined. Further diagnostic steps and treatment strategies are outlined to inform both the managing clinician and reporting radiologist. This article summarizes an unglamorous yet information-rich field, which is ripe for assessment in the dawning era of personalized medicine, and one in which the radiologist is well placed to add value to patient care.
KeywordsOsteoporosis Sarcopenia Obesity CT Abdomen
Magnetic resonance imaging
Bone mineral density
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
Abdominal visceral fat
Body mass index
Thyroid function tests
Liver function tests
Compliance with ethical standards
No funding was obtained for this study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Statement of informed consent was not applicable since the manuscript does not contain any patient data.
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