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Abdominal Radiology

, Volume 42, Issue 9, pp 2376–2386 | Cite as

Osteoporosis, obesity, and sarcopenia on abdominal CT: a review of epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, and management strategies for the reporting radiologist

  • Timothy É. MurrayEmail author
  • David Williams
  • Michael J. Lee
Pictorial Essay

Abstract

Abdominal computed tomography (CT) is a widely performed examination, with many indications. Assessment of bone, fat, and muscle on abdominal CT can be performed in a quantitative manner. Published studies have developed diagnostic cutoffs for osteoporosis, obesity, and sarcopenia, which are summarized with pictorial examples. The epidemiological and prognostic significance of these disease states are outlined. Further diagnostic steps and treatment strategies are outlined to inform both the managing clinician and reporting radiologist. This article summarizes an unglamorous yet information-rich field, which is ripe for assessment in the dawning era of personalized medicine, and one in which the radiologist is well placed to add value to patient care.

Keywords

Osteoporosis Sarcopenia Obesity CT Abdomen 

Abbreviations

CT

Computed tomography

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

BMD

Bone mineral density

DXA

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

DECT

Dual-energy CT

QCT

Quantitative CT

HU

Hounsfield unit

AVF

Abdominal visceral fat

BMI

Body mass index

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

TFT

Thyroid function tests

LFT

Liver function tests

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Funding

No funding was obtained for this study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Statement of informed consent was not applicable since the manuscript does not contain any patient data.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (MP4 86329 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Timothy É. Murray
    • 1
    Email author
  • David Williams
    • 2
  • Michael J. Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyBeaumont HospitalDublinIreland
  2. 2.Department of Geriatric and Stroke MedicineBeaumont HospitalDublinIreland

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