Intra-arterial contrast-enhanced ultrasound (IA CEUS) for localization of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) supply during transarterial chemoembolization (TACE): a case series
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Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a proven catheter-based locoregional therapy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Drug-eluting bead TACE involves delivering micrometer-sized particles preloaded with doxorubicin directly to the tumor via its arterial blood supply and results in vascular embolization with intra-tumoral drug release. Effective therapy requires mapping of the tumor arterial supply, which in some cases cannot be accomplished with conventional angiographic techniques alone. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an imaging technique which utilizes microbubble contrast agents to demonstrate blood flow and tissue perfusion, enabling tumor visualization in real time. CEUS with intravenous contrast administration is well established for evaluation of HCC. Intra-arterial (IA) CEUS, on the other hand, is an emerging technique that allows more selective evaluation of the arterial supply to the tumor. The three cases in this report illustrate the utility of intra-procedural IA CEUS during TACE. Specifically, IA CEUS aided TACE in cases where the HCC showed poor arterial enhancement, an extrahepatic arterial supply, and a portal venous supply, respectively.
KeywordsContrast-enhanced ultrasound Hepatocellular carcinoma Transarterial chemoembolization Intra-arterial contrast-enhanced ultrasound
Compliance with ethical standards
No funding was received for this study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. For this type of study formal consent is not required.
Statement of informed consent was not applicable since the manuscript does not contain any patient data.
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