Adrenal histoplasmosis: clinical presentation and imaging features in nine cases
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Background: We describe a retrospective analysis of the clinical presentation and imaging features in nine patients with adrenal histoplasmosis in nonimmunocompromised patients from a nonendemic region.
Methods: Clinically, a tuberculosis-like presentation in four patients and a tumor-like presentation in five patients were seen. All patients were seronegative for the human immunodeficiency virus. Ultrasound (US) in all patients, computed tomography (CT) in six, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in three showed suprarenal masses. CT-guided (in five) and US-guided (in four) biopsy and fine-needle aspiration cytology established a definite diagnosis. The work-up for malignancy and tuberculosis was negative.
Results: On cross-sectional imaging, eight patients had bilateral adrenal masses and one had a unilateral adrenal mass. Imaging features were variable. All adrenal masses were hypoechoic on US, homogeneous in five, and heterogeneous in four patients. All adrenal masses were hypodense on CT, homogeneous in four, and heterogeneous in two. Heterogeneous enhancement was seen in three, homogeneous enhancement in two, and no enhancement in one patient. MRI in three patients showed that the masses were of variable signal intensity on all pulse sequences.
Conclusion: Our case series showed that adrenal histoplasmosis does occur in immunocompetent persons living in areas not endemic for the disease. The imaging features were variable.
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