Bone SPECT/CT in the postoperative spine: a focus on spinal fusion

  • Khulood Al-Riyami
  • Gopinath Gnanasegaran
  • Tim Van den Wyngaert
  • Jamshed Bomanji
Review Article


Low back pain is a global problem affecting one in 10 people. The management of low back pain varies from conservative to more invasive methods with a spectacular increase in the number of patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery during the last decade. Conventional radiological and radionuclide studies are often used in the assessment of persistent or recurring pain after spinal surgery with several advantages and limitations related to each technique. This article reviews the key contribution of integrated bone SPECT/CT in evaluating patients with persistent or recurring pain after spinal surgery, focusing on spinal fusion. Current literature supports the use of bone SPECT/CT as an adjunct imaging modality and problem-solving tool in evaluating patients with suspicion of pseudarthrosis, adjacent segment degeneration, and hardware failure. The role of bone SPECT/CT in post-operative orthopaedic scenarios is evolving, and this review highlights the need for further research on the role of bone SPECT/CT in these patients.


Bone SPECT/CT Back pain Spinal fusion Complications Hardware failure Fusion instability Adjacent segment disease 


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Supplementary material

259_2017_3765_MOESM1_ESM.docx (16 kb)
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khulood Al-Riyami
    • 1
  • Gopinath Gnanasegaran
    • 2
  • Tim Van den Wyngaert
    • 3
    • 4
  • Jamshed Bomanji
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Nuclear MedicineUniversity College London HospitalsLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Nuclear MedicineRoyal Free HospitalLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of Nuclear MedicineAntwerp University HospitalEdegemBelgium
  4. 4.Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesUniversity of AntwerpWilrijkBelgium

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