Amyloid plaque imaging in vivo: current achievement and future prospects
- 332 Downloads
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a very complex neurodegenerative disorder, the exact cause of which is still not known. The major histopathological features, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, already described by Alois Alzheimer, have been the focus in research for decades. Despite a probable whole cascade of events in the brain leading to impairment of cognition, amyloid is still the target for diagnosis and treatment.
The rapid development of molecular imaging techniques now allows imaging of amyloid plaques in vivo in Alzheimer patients by PET amyloid ligands such as Pittsburgh compound B (PIB). Studies so far have revealed high 11C-PIB retention in brain at prodromal stages of AD and a possibility to discriminate AD from other dementia disorders by 11C-PIB. Ongoing studies are focussing to understand the relationship between brain and CSF amyloid processes and cognitive processes.
In vivo imaging of amyloid will be important for early diagnosis and evaluation of new anti-amyloid therapies in AD.
KeywordsPositron emission tomography (PET) Amyloid PIB Alzheimer’s disease Diagnostic marker
- 8.Shoghi-Jadid K, Small D, Agdeppa ED, Kepe V, Ercoli LM, et al. Localization of neurofibrillary tangles and beta-amyloid plaques in the brain of living patients with Alzheimer disease. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004;10:24–35.Google Scholar
- 12.Agdeppa ED, Kepe V, Liu J, et al. Binding characteristics of radiofluorinated 6-dialkylamino-2-naphtylethylidene derivatives as positron emission tomography imaging probes for β-amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurosci. 2001;21:1–5.Google Scholar
- 26.Forsberg A, Engler H, Almkvist O, et al. PET imaging of amyloid deposition in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiol Aging. 2007 May 10 (in press).Google Scholar
- 30.Kemppainen NM, Aalto S, Karrasch M, et al. Cognitive reserve hypothesis: Pittsburgh compound B and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in relation to education in mild Alzheimer’s disease. Ann Neurol. 2007 Nov 19 (in press).Google Scholar
- 31.Josephs KA, Whitwell JL, Ahmed Z, et al. β-amyloid burden is not associated with rates of atrophy. Ann Neurol. 2007 Sept 25 (in press).Google Scholar
- 36.Johansson A, Savitcheva I, Forsberg A, et al. [11C]-PIB imaging in patients with Parkinson’s disease: preliminary results. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2007 Sept 11 (in press).Google Scholar
- 37.Maetzler W, Reimold M, Liepelt I, et al. PIB binding in Parkinson’s disease dementia. Neuroimage. 2007 Oct 22 (in press).Google Scholar
- 45.Kadir A, Andreasen N, Almkvist O, et al. Effect of phenserine treatment on brain functional activity and amyloid in AD. Ann Neurol 2008 (in press).Google Scholar