EANM/ESC guidelines for radionuclide imaging of cardiac function

  • B. Hesse
  • T. B. Lindhardt
  • W. Acampa
  • C. Anagnostopoulos
  • J. Ballinger
  • J. J. Bax
  • L. Edenbrandt
  • A. Flotats
  • G. Germano
  • T. Gmeiner Stopar
  • P. Franken
  • A. Kelion
  • A. Kjaer
  • D. Le Guludec
  • M. Ljungberg
  • A. F. Maenhout
  • C. Marcassa
  • J. Marving
  • F. McKiddie
  • W. M. Schaefer
  • L. Stegger
  • R. Underwood


Radionuclide imaging of cardiac function represents a number of well-validated techniques for accurate determination of right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and LV volumes. These first European guidelines give recommendations for how and when to use first-pass and equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography, gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, gated PET, and studies with non-imaging devices for the evaluation of cardiac function. The items covered are presented in 11 sections: clinical indications, radiopharmaceuticals and dosimetry, study acquisition, RV EF, LV EF, LV volumes, LV regional function, LV diastolic function, reports and image display and reference values from the literature of RVEF, LVEF and LV volumes. If specific recommendations given cannot be based on evidence from original, scientific studies, referral is given to “prevailing or general consensus”. The guidelines are designed to assist in the practice of referral to, performance, interpretation and reporting of nuclear cardiology studies for the evaluation of cardiac performance.


Nuclear imaging EANM/ESC guidelines Cardiac function 



acid citrate dextrose


coronary artery disease


cardiac magnetic resonance imaging




Emory Cardiac Toolbox




end-diastolic volume




ejection fraction


equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography


end-systolic volume


first pass


first-pass radionuclide ventriculography


human serum albumin




left anterior oblique


left bundle branche block


low energy general purpose


low energy high resolution


low energy high sensitivity


left posterior oblique


left ventricle


left ventricular volume


left ventricular ejection fraction


myocardial infarction


myocardial perfusion scintigraphy


non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction


peak filling rate


PFR normalised to stroke volume


quantitative gated SPECT


right anterior oblique


red blood cells


radionuclide ventriculography




right ventricle


ST elevation acute myocardial infarction


time-activity curve


transient ischaemic dilatation


time to peak filling rate


wall motion


wall thickening


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Copyright information

© EANM 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Hesse
    • 1
  • T. B. Lindhardt
    • 2
  • W. Acampa
    • 3
  • C. Anagnostopoulos
    • 4
  • J. Ballinger
    • 5
  • J. J. Bax
    • 6
  • L. Edenbrandt
    • 7
  • A. Flotats
    • 8
  • G. Germano
    • 9
  • T. Gmeiner Stopar
    • 10
  • P. Franken
    • 11
  • A. Kelion
    • 12
  • A. Kjaer
    • 1
  • D. Le Guludec
    • 13
  • M. Ljungberg
    • 14
  • A. F. Maenhout
    • 4
  • C. Marcassa
    • 15
  • J. Marving
    • 1
  • F. McKiddie
    • 16
  • W. M. Schaefer
    • 17
  • L. Stegger
    • 18
  • R. Underwood
    • 19
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear MedicineUniversity Hospital of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Department of CardiologyHilleroed HospitalHilleroedDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimages of the National Council of ResearchUniversity of Naples Federico IINaplesItaly
  4. 4.Department of Nuclear MedicineRoyal Brompton HospitalLondonUK
  5. 5.Department of Nuclear MedicineGuy’s Hospital-Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Foundation TrustLondonUK
  6. 6.Department of CardiologyLeiden University Medical CenterLeidenThe Netherlands
  7. 7.Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University Research Program in Medical InformaticsMalmö University HospitalMalmöSweden
  8. 8.Nuclear Medicine DepartmentAutonomous University of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  9. 9.Artificial Intelligence Program at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and Department of Medicine of the University of California at Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  10. 10.Department of Nuclear MedicineUniversity Medical Centre Ljubljana, Radiopharmacy and Clinical BiochemistryZaloska 7Slovenia
  11. 11.Nuclear MedicineAZ VUBBrusselsBelgium
  12. 12.Nuclear Medicine DepartmentHarefield HospitalHarefieldUK
  13. 13.Service de medecine nucleairehôpital Bichat, APHP, Université Denis-Diderot, UMR577B, and Inserm U773ParisFrance
  14. 14.Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, LundLund UniversityLundSweden
  15. 15.Department of Cardiology, Fondazione MaugeriIRCCSVerunoItaly
  16. 16.Nuclear Medicine DepartmentAberdeen Royal InfirmaryScotlandUK
  17. 17.Nuclear Medicine DepartmentUniversity Hospital, Aachen University of TechnologyAachenGermany
  18. 18.Department of Nuclear MedicineUniversity Hospital MünsterMünsterGermany
  19. 19.Department of Nuclear MedicineRoyal Brompton HospitalLondonUK

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