Targeting of matrix metalloproteinase activation for noninvasive detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions

  • Dagmar Hartung
  • Michael Schäfers
  • Shinichiro Fujimoto
  • Bodo Levkau
  • Navneet Narula
  • Klaus Kopka
  • Renu Virmani
  • Chris Reutelingsperger
  • Leo Hofstra
  • Frank D. Kolodgie
  • Artiom Petrov
  • Jagat Narula



Inflammation plays an important role in vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques to rupture and hence acute coronary events. The monocyte–macrophage infiltration in plaques leads to upregulation of cytokines and metalloproteinase enzymes.

Matrix metalloproteinases result in matrix dissolution and consequently expansive remodeling of the vessel. They also contribute to attenuation of fibrous cap and hence susceptibility to rupture. Assessment of metalloproteinase expression and activity should provide information about plaque instability.


Vascular remodeling Atherosclerosis Thin cap fibroatheroma Matrix metalloproteinase Radionuclide imaging 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dagmar Hartung
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael Schäfers
    • 3
  • Shinichiro Fujimoto
    • 1
  • Bodo Levkau
    • 4
  • Navneet Narula
    • 1
  • Klaus Kopka
    • 3
  • Renu Virmani
    • 5
  • Chris Reutelingsperger
    • 6
  • Leo Hofstra
    • 6
  • Frank D. Kolodgie
    • 5
  • Artiom Petrov
    • 1
  • Jagat Narula
    • 1
  1. 1.School of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologySchool of MedicineHannoverGermany
  3. 3.Department of Nuclear MedicineUniversity of MünsterMünsterGermany
  4. 4.Institute of PathophysiologyUniversity of Duisburg-EssenDuisburgGermany
  5. 5.Cardiovascular PathologyGaithersburgUSA
  6. 6.Cardiovascular Research InstituteMaastrichtThe Netherlands

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