Regional muscle changes in adult dysfunctional hip conditions of femoroacetabular impingement and hip dysplasia
To analyze regional muscle CT density and bulk in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and hip dysplasia (HD) versus controls.
Materials and methods
Patients who obtained perioperative CT imaging for FAI and HD before surgery were retrospectively studied. Asymptomatic controls included for comparison. Two readers independently evaluated regional hip muscle [iliopsoas (IP), rectus femoris (RF), gluteus minimus (Gm), and medius (GM)] density, muscle area, and muscle circumference. Inter-observer reliability calculated using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC).
A consecutive series of 25 FAI patients, 16 HD patients, and 38 controls were recruited in the study. FAI patients had significantly greater Gm and GM circumferences as well as greater RF and IP areas on the normal side compared to the asymptomatic control group (p values 0.004, 0.032, 0.033, and 0.028, respectively). In addition, Gm and RF circumferences and RF area were significantly larger (p values 0.029, 0.036, and 0.014, respectively) in FAI patients on the affected side compared to the control group. HD patients had significantly smaller Gm and GM circumferences on the affected side than normal side measurements in FAI group (p values 0.043 and 0.003, respectively). Normal side GM circumference was also smaller in HD patients than normal side FAI hips (p value 0.02). There was no significant difference between the measurements on normal and abnormal sides in each disease group. No significant difference was found between measurements of HD compared to controls (p > 0.05). No muscle density differences were seen among different groups. There was moderate to excellent inter-reader reliability for all measurements except Gm muscle density.
Muscle analysis was able to quantify differences among patients with FAI, HD, and asymptomatic controls. These changes could indicate either a muscle imbalance contributing to the pathology or disuse atrophy, which may have implications for specific muscle-strengthening therapies and rehabilitation procedures in such patients.
KeywordsFemoroacetabular impingement Hip dysplasia CT Skeletal muscle Hip pain
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
AC receives royalties from Jaypee and Wolters. AC also serves as consultant with ICON Medical and Treace Medical Concepts Inc.
Other authors do not report any conflicts of interest.