Malignant granular cell tumor of the median nerve: a case report with a literature review of 157 cases

  • Shinji Tsukamoto
  • Maiko Takeda
  • Kanya Honoki
  • Shohei Omokawa
  • Yasuhito Tanaka
Case Report


Malignant granular cell tumors are an extremely rare, high-grade sarcoma with a schwannian phenotype and are composed of malignant granular cells with cytoplasmic lysosomal inclusion. To date, 157 cases of malignant granular cell tumors have been reported. We report the first case of a malignant granular cell tumor arising from the digital nerve to the median nerve in the palm, and we review the 157 previously reported cases and summarize the clinical profile, treatment, and outcome of this tumor. The median age, tumor size, and follow-up periods were 51 years, 6 cm, and 24 months respectively. With respect to the oncological result, 53 patients (33.8%) had no evidence for disease, 31 (19.7%) were alive with the disease, and 51 (32.5%) died because of the disease. Our case report indicates that rare malignant tumors can arise from the digital nerve to the median nerve in the palm, an anatomical site that is usually affected by benign lesions. Exhaustive discussions between surgeons and pathologists are necessary for the treatment of this rare malignant tumor.


Malignant granular cell tumor Granular cell tumor Median nerve Nerve sheath tumor 



The authors would like to thank Dr Masanori Hisaoka (Department of Pathology and Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan) for consultation regarding the pathological diagnosis of this case.

Author statement

All authors had access to the data and a role in writing the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


  1. 1.
    Fanburg-Smith JC, Meis-Kindblom JM, Fante R, Kindblom LG. Malignant granular cell tumor of soft tissue: diagnostic criteria and clinicopathologic correlation. Am J Surg Pathol. 1998;22:779–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ravich A, Stout AP, Ravich RA. Malignant granular cell myoblastoma involving the urinary bladder. Ann Surg. 1945;121:361–72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Powell EB. Granular cell myoblastoma. Arch Pathol. 1946;42:517–24.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dunnington JH. Granular cell myoblastoma of the orbit. Arch Ophthalmol. 1948;40:14–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schwidde JT, Meyers R, Sweeney DB. Intracerebral metastatic granular cell myoblastoma. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1951;10:30–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ross RC, Miller TR, Foote FW. Malignant granular-cell myoblastoma. Cancer. 1952;5:112–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Crawford ES, De Bakey ME. Granular-cell myoblastoma: two unusual cases. Cancer. 1953;6:786–978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gamboa LG. Malignant granular-cell myoblastoma. AMA Arch Pathol. 1955;60:663–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Svejda J, Horn V. A disseminated granular-cell pseudotumour: so-called metastasising granular-cell myoblastoma. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1958;76:343–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Krieg AF. Malignant granular cell myoblastoma. A case report. Arch Pathol. 1962;74:251–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mackenzie DH. Malignant granular cell myoblastoma. J Clin Pathol. 1967;20:739–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    McCabe MM, Harman JW. Malignant myoblastoma. A case report. J Irish Med Assoc. 1969;62:284–6.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Al-Sarraf M, Loud AV, Vaitkevicius VK. Malignant granular cell tumor. Histochemical and electron microscopic study. Arch Pathol. 1971;91:550–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Madhaven M, Aurora AL, Sen SB. Malignant granular cell myoblastoma—report of a case. Indian J Cancer. 1974;11:360–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cadotte M. Malignant granular-cell myoblastoma. Cancer. 1974;33:1417–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Usui M, Ishii S, Yamawaki S, Sasaki T, Minami A. Malignant granular cell tumor of the radial nerve: an autopsy observation with electron microscopic and tissue culture studies. Cancer. 1977;39:1547–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Donhuijsen K, Samtleben W, Leder LD, Schmidt CG. Malignant granular cell tumor. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1979;95:93–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kubac G, Doris I, Ondro M, Davey PW. Malignant granular cell myoblastoma with metastatic cardiac involvement: case report and echocardiogram. Am Heart J. 1980;100:227–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Weisman RA, Konrad HR, Canalis RF. Granular cell myoblastoma involving the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Arch Otolaryngol. 1980;106:294–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Robertson AJ, McIntosh W, Lamont P, Guthrie W. Malignant granular cell tumour (myoblastoma) of the vulva: report of a case and review of the literature. Histopathology. 1981;5:69–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kindblom LG, Olsson KM. Malignant granular cell tumor. A clinico-pathologic and ultrastructural study of a case. Pathol Res Pract. 1981;172:384–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Finkel G, Lane B. Granular cell variant of neurofibromatosis: ultrastructure of benign and malignant tumors. Hum Pathol. 1982;13:959–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Steffelaar JW, Nap M, von Haelst UJ. Malignant granular cell tumor. Report of a case with special reference to carcinoembryonic antigen. Am J Surg Pathol. 1982;6:665–772.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shimamura K, Osamura RY, Ueyama Y, et al. Malignant granular cell tumor of the right sciatic nerve. Report of an autopsy case with electron microscopic, immunohistochemical, and enzyme histochemical studies. Cancer. 1984;53:524–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Geisinger KR, Kawamoto EH, Marshall RB, Ahl ET, Cooper MR. Aspiration and exfoliative cytology, including ultrastructure, of a malignant granular-cell tumor. Acta Cytol. 1985;29:593–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Khansur T, Balducci L, Tavassoli M. Identification of desmosomes in the granular cell tumor. Implications in histologic diagnosis and histogenesis. Am J Surg Pathol. 1985;9:898–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Klima M, Peters J. Malignant granular cell tumor. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1987;111:1070–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Khansur T, Balducci L, Tavassoli M. Granular cell tumor. Clinical spectrum of the benign and malignant entity. Cancer. 1987;60:220–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Troncoso P, Ordóñez NG, Raymond AK, Mackay B. Malignant granular cell tumor: immunocytochemical and ultrastructural observations. Ultrastruct Pathol. 1988;12:137–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Thunold S, Von Eyben FE, Maehle B. Malignant granular cell tumour of the neck: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies of a case. Histopathology. 1989;14:655–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    O’Donovan DG, Kell P. Malignant granular cell tumour with intraperitoneal dissemination. Histopathology. 1989;14:417–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gleason-Jordan IO, Mirra JM, Mahendra T, Pathmarajah C. Case report 676: malignant granular cell tumor (schwannoma, myoblastoma), disseminated. Skeletal Radiol. 1991;20:529–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Urabe A, Imayama S, Yasumoto S, Nakayama J, Hori Y. Malignant granular cell tumor. J Dermatol. 1991;18:161–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vamsy CM, Smile SR, Ratnakar CR, Veliath AJ. Malignant granular cell tumour. A case report and review of literature. Indian J Cancer. 1992;29:31–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Uzoaru I, Firfer B, Ray V, Hubbard-Shepard M, Rhee H. Malignant granular cell tumor. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1992;116:206–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chetty R, Kalan MR. Malignant granular cell tumor of the breast. J Surg Oncol. 1992;49:135–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jardines L, Cheung L, LiVolsi V, Hendrickson S, Brooks JJ. Malignant granular cell tumors: report of a case and review of the literature. Surgery. 1994;116:49–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gokaslan ST, Terzakis JA, Santagada EA. Malignant granular cell tumor. J Cutan Pathol. 1994;21:263–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Price MA, Horwitz P, Tschen JA, Reddick M, Wolf JE. Malignant granular cell tumor. Dermatol Surg. 1995;21:820–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Saperstein AL, Lusskin R, Doniguian AE, Thomas PA, Battista AF. Malignant granular cell tumor mimicking herniated nucleus pulposus. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1996;(324):244–50.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Simsir A, Osborne BM, Greenebaum E. Malignant granular cell tumor: a case report and review of the recent literature. Hum Pathol. 1996;27:853–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Matsumoto H, Kojima Y, Inoue T, et al. A malignant granular cell tumor of the stomach: report of a case. Surg Today. 1996;26:119–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Parayno PP, August CZ. Malignant granular cell tumor. Report of a case with DNA ploidy analysis. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1996;120:296–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tsuchida T, Okada K, Itoi E, Sato T, Sato K. Intramuscular malignant granular cell tumor. Skeletal Radiol. 1997;26:116–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sonobe H, Iwata J, Furihata M, Moriki T, Ohtsuki Y. Malignant granular cell tumor: report of a case and review of the literature. Pathol Res Pract. 1998;194:507–13. discussion 515–6Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Miracco C, Andreassi A, Laurini L, De Santi MM, Taddeucci P, Tosi P. Granular cell tumour with histological signs of malignancy: report of a case and comparison with 10 benign and 4 atypical cases. Br J Dermatol. 1999;141:573–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Nishida M, Inoue M, Yanai A, Matsumoto T. Malignant granular cell tumor of the masseter muscle: case report. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2000;58:345–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ramos PC, Kapp DS, Longacre TA, Teng NNH. Malignant granular cell tumor of the vulva in a 17-year-old: case report and literature review. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2000;10:429–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Callejo SA, Kronish JW, Decker SJ, Cohen GR, Rosa RH. Malignant granular cell tumor metastatic to the orbit. Ophthalmology. 2000;107:550–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wieczorek TJ, Krane JF, Domanski HA, et al. Cytologic findings in granular cell tumors, with emphasis on the diagnosis of malignant granular cell tumor by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Cancer. 2001;93:398–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cruz-Mojarrieta J, Navarro S, Goméz-Cabrera E, et al. Malignant granular cell tumor of soft tissues: a study of two new cases. Int J Surg Pathol. 2001;9:255–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hyodo M, Sadamoto A, Murakami S. Malignant granular cell tumour of the cervical sympathetic nerve trunk. J Laryngol Otol. 2001;115:833–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Haustein UF. Malignant granular cell tumour with generalized metastases and polymyositis. Acta Derm Venereol. 2001;81:307–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Di Tommaso L, Magrini E, Consales A, et al. Malignant granular cell tumor of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve: report of a case with cytogenetic analysis. Hum Pathol. 2002;33:1237–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ng SB, Chuah KL. Fine needle aspiration cytology of metastatic malignant granular cell tumour: a case report and review of the literature. Cytopathology. 2002;13:164–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Berg JC, Tewari KS, Del Rosario R, Berman ML. Unusual presentation of a malignant granular cell tumor of the pelvis: case report and literature review. Gynecol Oncol. 2003;90:224–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Jiang M, Anderson T, Nwogu C, Tan D. Pulmonary malignant granular cell tumor. World J Surg Oncol. 2003;1:22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Carinci F, Francioso F, Rubini C, et al. Genetic portrait of malignant granular cell odontogenic tumour. Oral Oncol. 2003;39:69–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Loo CK, Santos LD, Killingsworth MC. Malignant oesophageal granular cell tumour: a case report. Pathology. 2004;36:506–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Yoshizawa A, Ota H, Sakaguchi N, et al. Malignant granular cell tumor of the esophagus. Virchows Arch. 2004;444:304–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Osanai T, Ishikawa A, Ogino T, Yamakawa M. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of malignant granular cell tumor with pathological correlation: a case report. J Orthop Sci. 2004;9:529–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Chiang M-J, Fang T-J, Li H-Y, Chen I-H, Lee K-F. Malignant granular cell tumor in larynx mimicking laryngeal carcinoma. Am J Otolaryngol. 2004;25:270–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Blacksin MF, White LM, Hameed M, Kandel R, Patterson FR, Benevenia J. Granular cell tumor of the extremity: magnetic resonance imaging characteristics with pathologic correlation. Skeletal Radiol. 2005;34:625–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Isogai K, Yamamoto E, Yamaoka S, et al. A case report of the malignant granular cell tumor coexisting with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi. 2005;102:1025–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Gualis J, Carrascal Y, de la Fuente L, Echevarría JR. Heart transplantation treatment for a malignant cardiac granular cell tumor: 33 months of survival. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2007;6:679–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Meling TR, Fridrich K, Evensen JF, Nedregaard B. Malignant granular cell tumor of the skull base. Skull Base. 2008;18:59–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Papachristou DJ, Palekar A, Surti U, Cieply K, McGough RL, Rao UNM. Malignant granular cell tumor of the ulnar nerve with novel cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2009;191:46–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Arai E, Nishida Y, Tsukushi S, Sugiura H, Ishiguro N. Intramuscular granular cell tumor in the lower extremities. Clin Orthop. 2010;468:1384–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Francesco VD, Avellini C, Pappalardo S, Proscia D, Piccirillo F. Malignant granular cell tumor of the anal-perianal region and suprarenal hyperplasia: a casual association? Indian J Dermatol. 2010;55:403–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Nasser H, Danforth RD, Sunbuli M, Dimitrijevic O. Malignant granular cell tumor: case report with a novel karyotype and review of the literature. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2010;14:273–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Suzuki S, Maeda S, Sasajima K, et al. Malignant granular cell tumor in the gluteal region with unusual pathologic features. Int Surg. 2010;95:360–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hwang JS, Beebe KS, Rojas J, Peters SR. Malignant granular cell tumor of the thigh. Orthopedics. 2011;34:428–31.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nasser H, Ahmed Y, Szpunar SM, Kowalski PJ. Malignant granular cell tumor: a look into the diagnostic criteria. Pathol Res Pract. 2011;207:164–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Go MH, Kim SH, Cho KH. Brachial plexus tumors in a consecutive series of twenty-one patients. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2012;52:138–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Chen J, Wang L, Xu J, et al. Malignant granular cell tumor with breast metastasis: a case report and review of the literature. Oncol Lett. 2012;4:63–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Guo N, Peng Z, Yang K, Lou J. Uterine cervical malignant granular cell tumor. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2012;38:944–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Crowe D, Ayli EE, Gloster HM. A malignant granular cell tumor excised with Mohs micrographic surgery. Case Rep Oncol Med. 2012;2012:453569.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Akahane K, Kato K, Ogiso S, et al. Malignant granular cell tumor of the breast: case report and literature review. Breast Cancer. 2015;22:317–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Nakao M, Hishida T, Ishii G, Yoshida J, Nishimura M, Nagai K. Malignant granular cell tumor of the posterior mediastinum with dissemination. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2012;20:71–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    De Luca G, Luciano A, Benincasa G, Sessa R, Petteruti F. Giant malignant granular cell tumor (GCT) of the posterior mediastinum. J Thorac Oncol. 2013;8:1107–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Treglia G, Mormando M, Iacovazzo D, et al. A rare case of malignant granular cell tumor of the colon incidentally detected by (18) F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2013;47:148–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Cheng A, Dong M, Fu L, Zhao L, Wang X, Sun W. A rare case of pulmonary malignant granular cell tumor detected with 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging. Clin Nucl Med. 2014;39:816–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Aviles S, Tay T, Jones WD, Thirkannad S. Intraneural malignant granular cell tumor—report of an extremely rare tumor in a child. Hand Surg. 2014;19:103–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Soh WM, Yeong ML, Wong KP. Malignant granular cell tumour of the mediastinum. Malays J Pathol. 2014;36:149–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Conley AP, Koplin S, Caracciollo JT, Reed DR, Webber NP, Attia S. Dramatic response to pazopanib in a patient with metastatic malignant granular cell tumor. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32:107–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Krishnamurthy A, George R, Majhi U. Malignant granular cell tumor of the tongue: a clinico-pathological challenge. Indian J Surg Oncol. 2014;5:71–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Choi SM, Hong SG, Kang SM, et al. A case of malignant granular cell tumor in the sigmoid colon. Clin Endosc. 2014;47:197–200.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    McGuire LS, Yakoub D, Möller MG, Rosenberg A, Livingstone A. Malignant granular cell tumor of the back: a case report and review of the literature. Case Rep Med. 2014;2014:794648.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Liu T, Han Y, Zheng S, et al. Primary cutaneous malignant granular cell tumor: a case report in China and review of the literature. Diagn Pathol. 2015;10:113.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Tan TJ, Alassiri AH, Ng TL, Mallinson PI, Munk PL. Malignant granular cell tumor of the foot-multimodality imaging findings and literature review. Clin Imaging. 2015;39:543–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gupta N, Sanchety N, Verma PS, Verma G. Malignant granular cell tumor of the breast: literature review. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2015;58:238–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Pérez-González YC, Pagura L, Llamas-Velasco M, Cortes-Lambea L, Kutzner H, Requena L. Primary cutaneous malignant granular cell tumor: an immunohistochemical study and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol. 2015;37:334–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Imanishi J, Yazawa Y, Saito T, et al. Atypical and malignant granular cell tumors in Japan: a Japanese musculoskeletal oncology group (JMOG) study. Int J Clin Oncol. 2016;21:808–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Jia X, Chen C, Chen L, Yu C, Kondo T. Large malignant granular cell tumor with suprascapular nerve and brachial plexus invasion: a case report and literature review. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Singh M, Singh AK, Shubham S, Maan P, Chauhan U. Malignant granular cell tumour presenting as a paravertebral mass in an adolescent male—a rare presentation of an uncommon tumour. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017;11:ED08–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Liu Z, Mira JL, Vu H. Diagnosis of malignant granular cell tumor by fine needle aspiration cytology. Acta Cytol. 2001;45:1011–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Schmidt O, Fleckenstein GH, Gunawan B, Füzesi L, Emons G. Recurrence and rapid metastasis formation of a granular cell tumor of the vulva. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003;106:219–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Rekhi B, Jambhekar NA. Morphologic spectrum, immunohistochemical analysis, and clinical features of a series of granular cell tumors of soft tissues: a study from a tertiary referral cancer center. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2010;14:162–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Canacci AM, Nunez C, Getty P, Abdul-Karim F. Diagnosis of malignant granular cell tumor metastatic to bone by fine needle aspiration cytology: a case report. Acta Cytol. 2010;54:190–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Chelly I, Bellil K, Mekni A, et al. Malignant granular cell tumor of the abdominal wall. Pathologica. 2005;97:130–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hurrell MA, McLean C, Desmond P, Tress BM, Kaye A. Malignant granular cell tumour of the sciatic nerve. Australas Radiol. 1995;39:86–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Chia J, Poh WT, Tan SK. Malignant granular cell tumour of the lower limb—a case report and review of the literature. Ann Acad Med Singap. 1993;22:384–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Imao K, Ogose A, Kawashima H, et al. Two cases treated with chemotherapy for malignant granular cell tumor. J East Jpn Orthop Traumatol. 2009;21:577–82.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Enzinger FM, Weiss SW. Soft tissue tumors. 5th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2008. p. 886–7.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Fletcher CDM, Bridge JA, Hogendoorn P, Mertens F. WHO classification of tumours of soft tissue and bone. Lyon: IARC; 2013. p. 169–92.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Morris CJ, Younan Y, Singer AD, Johnson G, Chamieh J, Datir A. Masses of the hand and wrist, a pictorial review. Clin Imaging. 2016;40:650–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ISS 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shinji Tsukamoto
    • 1
  • Maiko Takeda
    • 2
  • Kanya Honoki
    • 1
  • Shohei Omokawa
    • 1
  • Yasuhito Tanaka
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryNara Medical UniversityKashihara-cityJapan
  2. 2.Department of Diagnostic PathologyNara Medical UniversityKashiharaJapan

Personalised recommendations