Detection and prevalence of variant sciatic nerve anatomy in relation to the piriformis muscle on MRI
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To determine whether known variant anatomical relationships between the sciatic nerve and piriformis muscle can be identified on routine MRI studies of the hip and to establish their imaging prevalence.
Hip MRI studies acquired over a period of 4 years at two medical centers underwent retrospective interpretation. Anatomical relationship between the sciatic nerve and the piriformis muscle was categorized according to the Beaton and Anson classification system. The presence of a split sciatic nerve at the level of the ischial tuberosity was also recorded.
A total of 755 consecutive scans were reviewed. Conventional anatomy (type I), in which an undivided sciatic nerve passes below the piriformis muscle, was identified in 87% of cases. The remaining 13% of cases demonstrated a type II pattern in which one division of the sciatic nerve passes through the piriformis whereas the second passes below. Only two other instances of variant anatomy were identified (both type III). Most variant cases were associated with a split sciatic nerve at the level of the ischial tuberosity (73 out of 111, 65.8%). By contrast, only 6% of cases demonstrated a split sciatic nerve at this level in the context of otherwise conventional anatomy.
Anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve course in relation to the piriformis muscle are frequently identified on routine MRI of the hips, occurring in 12–20% of scans reviewed. Almost all variants identified were type II. The ability to recognize variant sciatic nerve courses on MRI may prove useful in optimal treatment planning.
KeywordsSciatic nerve Variant anatomy Piriformis MRI
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Conflicts of interest
The authors report that they have no conflicts of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper.