Skeletal Radiology

, Volume 40, Issue 5, pp 623–630 | Cite as

Total body height estimation using sacrum height in Anatolian Caucasians: multidetector computed tomography-based virtual anthropometry

  • Hakki Muammer Karakas
  • Osman Celbis
  • Ahmet Harma
  • Banu AliciogluEmail author
Scientific Article



Estimation of total body height is a major step when a subject has to be identified from his/her skeletal structures. In the presence of decomposed skeletons and missing bones, estimation is usually based on regression equation for intact long bones. If these bones are fragmented or missing, alternative structures must be used. In this study, the value of sacrum height (SH) in total body height (TBH) estimation was investigated in a contemporary population of adult Anatolian Caucasians.

Materials and Methods

Sixty-six men (41.6 ± 14.9 years) and 43 women (41.1 ± 14.2 years) were scanned with 64-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to obtain high-resolution anthropometric data. SH of midsagittal sections was electronically measured. The technique and methodology were validated on a standard skeletal model.


Sacrum height was 111.2 ± 12.6 mm (77–138 mm) in men and 104.7 ± 8.2 (89–125 mm) in women. The difference between the two sexes regarding SH was significant (p < 0.0001). SH did not significantly correlate with age in men, whereas the correlation was significant in women (p < 0.03). The correlation between SH and the stature was significant in men (r = 0.427, p < 0.0001) and was insignificant in women. For men the regression equation was \( \left[ {{\hbox{Stature}} = \left( {0.{3}0{6} \times {\hbox{SH}}} \right) + {137}.{9}} \right] \) (r = 0.54, SEE = 56.9, p < 0.0001).


Sacrum height is not susceptible to sex, or to age in men. In the presence of incomplete male skeletons, SH helps to determine the stature. This study is also one of the initial applications of MDCT in virtual anthropometric research.


Body height estimation Multidetector computed tomography Osteometric analysis Sacrum height Virtual anthropometry 



The study was funded by the Inonu University Scientific Research Projects Fund under the project of the MDCT research laboratory and under the respective subproject on forensic and orthopedic MDCT research (Grant no: I.U. BAP 2005 GUZ-1/GUDUMLU).

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© ISS 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hakki Muammer Karakas
    • 1
  • Osman Celbis
    • 2
  • Ahmet Harma
    • 3
  • Banu Alicioglu
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyInonu University Medical Faculty, Turgut Ozal Medical CenterMalatyaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Forensic MedicineInonu University Medical Faculty Turgut Ozal Medical CenterMalatyaTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyInonu University Medical Faculty Turgut Ozal Medical CenterMalatyaTurkey
  4. 4.Department of RadiologyTrakya University Medical FacultyEdirneTurkey
  5. 5.Department of AnatomyTrakya University Health Sciences InstituteEdirneTurkey
  6. 6.EdirneTurkey

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