Analyses of deterioration of the Cappadocian tuff, Turkey
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The Cappadocian tuff contains unique erosional features, the so-called fairy chimneys, some of which in the past were dwelled in and contain valuable wall paintings. These historical heritages, however, are undergoing chemical and physical deterioration due to atmospheric effects. For the conservation studies, understanding of the deterioration phenomenon of the tuff is essential. In this study, engineering geological and physicochemical characteristics of the tuff were determined. The durability of the tuff was assessed through wetting-drying, freezing-thawing, and salt crystallization. The test results suggest that chemical weathering may be traced to a depth of 2 cm below lichen-covered surfaces and 20 cm adjacent to discolored joint walls. Based on durability assessment methods, the tuff may be classified as having poor to very poor durability.
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