Advertisement

Environmental Geology

, Volume 58, Issue 4, pp 701–714 | Cite as

Geotechnical mapping for alluvial fan deposits controlled by active faults: a case study in the Erzurum, NE Turkey

  • Necmi Yarbasi
  • Ekrem KalkanEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Erzurum, the biggest city of Eastern Anatolia Region in the Turkey, is located in Karasu Plain. Karasu Plain, located on the central segment of the Erzurum Fault Zone, is an intermountain sedimentary basin with a Miocene-Quaternary volcanic basement, andesitic-basaltic lava flows and fissure eruptions of basaltic lava. It was filled in the early Quaternary by lacustrine fan-delta deposits. The basin is characterized by NNE-SSW trending sinistral wrench faults on its eastern margin and ENE-WSW trending reverse faults on its southern margin. Both systems of active faults intersect very near to Erzurum, which is considered to be the most likely site for the epicenter of a probable future large earthquake. Historical records of destructive earthquakes, morphotectonic features formed by paleo-seismic events and instrument seismic data of region indicate to a very high regional seismicity. The residential areas of Erzurum are located on thick alluvial fan deposits forming under the control of faults on the central segment of the Erzurum Fault Zone, which is one of the most active fault belts of the East Anatolian Region. Over time, the housing estates of city such as Yenisehir and Yildizkent have been expanded toward to the west and southwest part of Erzurum as a consequence of rapid and massive construction during the last 30 years. Geotechnical investigation has therefore been undertaken the residential areas of city in order to characterize geotechnical properties over the varied lithologies examine the potential for geotechnical mapping and assess the foundation conditions of the present and future settlement areas. The geological field observations and operations have been performed to make the soil sampling and characterize the lateral and vertical changes in thickness of the alluvial deposits in trenches, excavations and deep holes with 6–12 m sections. The soil samples have been subjected to a series of tests under laboratory conditions to obtain physical and mechanical properties. Furthermore, the standard penetration tests have been applied to the soils under field conditions. The geological field observations, geotechnical data and distribution of bearing capacity have been considered for the geotechnical mapping. Based on the geotechnical map, there are five geotechnical zones distinguished in the study area.

Keywords

Erzurum Alluvial deposit Geotechnical properties Geotechnical mapping 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The laboratory study of this research was carried out in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory of Civil Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty of Ataturk University. The authors thank authorities of the Civil Engineering Department.

References

  1. Adekalu KO, Osunbitan JA (2001) Compatibility of some agricultural soils in south western Nigeria. Soil Till Res 59:27–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akbulut S, Budak A, Arasan S, Kalkan E, Bayraktutan MS (2004) Soil and construction problems observed in the Askale-Erzurum earthquake. In: Proceedings of the 10th national soil mechanics and foundation engineering congress (in Turkish), Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, 16–17 September 2004Google Scholar
  3. Akpokodje EG (1979) The importance of engineering geological mapping in the development of the Niger Delta Basin. Bull Int Assoc Eng Geol 19:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anon (1978) Hydrogeological research report of the Erzurum plain. General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works, Publication No: 45 (in Turkish), AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  5. Anon (1996) Earthquake zoning map of Turkey. General Directorate of Disaster Affairs, Ministry of Reconstruction and Resettlement of Turkey (in Turkish), AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  6. Anon (2005) General geology and water drilling information of the Erzurum and its district. VIII. Regional Directorship of General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works (in Turkish), ErzurumGoogle Scholar
  7. Arpat E (1965) The general geology—petroleum possibilities of the field and its north between Ilica-Askale (Erzurum). MTA Report 4040 (in Turkish), AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  8. Aydin A, Oztas T (1997) Observing of the general properties of the Ataturk University farm soils. II. Chemical reaction. Agric Fac Rev 28(1):49–63Google Scholar
  9. Barka A, Bayraktutan MS (1985) Active faults of the Erzurum Basin impressive. In: Proceedings of the 38th geological congress of Turkey, General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (in Turkish), AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  10. Bayrak Y (2001) Erzurum and surroundings seismicity. First East Anatolia and Caucasian Earthquakes, Geophysics Workshop, Ataturk University, Erzurum, May 2001Google Scholar
  11. Bayraktutan MS (1999) Active tectonics and evaluation of thrust bounded Pasinler Basin on the Erzurum Fault Zone, Eastern Anatolia. Ann Tect 13(1–2):51–70Google Scholar
  12. Bayraktutan MS, Merefield JR, Grainger P, Evans BM, Yilmaz M, Kalkan E (1996) Regional gas geochemistry in an active tectonic zone, Erzurum Basin, Eastern Turkey. Q J Eng Geol Hydrogeol 29:209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bell FG (1998) Environmental geology. Blackwell, Malden, p 594Google Scholar
  14. Bell DH, Pettinga JR (1985) Engineering geology and subdivision planning in New Zealand. Eng Geol 22:45–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bell FG, Cripps JC, Culshaw MG, O’Hara M (1987) Aspects of geology in planning. In: Culshaw MG, Bell FG, Cripps JC, O’Hara M (eds) Planning and engineering geology. Engineering Geology Special Publication 4. Geological Society, London, pp 1–38Google Scholar
  16. Cetin H, Fener M, Gunaydin O (2006) Geotechnical properties of tire-cohesive clayey soil mixtures as a fill material. Eng Geol 88(1–2):110–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Daniel DE, Wu YK (1993) Compacted clay liners and covers for arid sites. J Geotech Eng 119(2):223–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. De Mulder EFJ (1996) Urban geosciences. In: McCall GJH, De Mulder EFJ, Marker BR (eds) Urban geoscience. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  19. De Mulder EFJ, Hiten R (1990) Preparation and application of engineering and environmental geological maps in the Netherlands. Eng Geol 29:279–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Delgado J, Alfaro P, Andreu JM, Cuenca A, Domenech C, Estevez A, Soria JM, Tomas R, Yebenes A (2003) Engineering-geological model of the Segura River flood plain (SE Spain): a case study for engineering planning. Eng Geol 68(3–4):171–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ercan A, Ergun M, Genc T, Duygu MA, Bayraktutan MS, Ecevitoglu B (2001) Ground structure of the northern Anatolia and underground resources: petroleum, water, geothermal, coal. First East Anatolia and Caucasia Earthquakes, Geophysics Workshop, Ataturk University, Erzurum, May 2001Google Scholar
  22. Forster A, Culshaw MG (1990) The use of site investigation data for the preparation of engineering geological maps and reports for use by planners and civil engineers. Eng Geol 29:347–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Franklin JA (1971) Triaxial strength of rock materials. Rock Mech Rock Eng 3(2):61–124Google Scholar
  24. Innocenti F, Manetti P, Mazzuoli R, Villari L (1982) Vulconismo nelle zone di collisione continentale: L’esempio Del Mediterraneo Orientale. C R Soc Ital Mineral 38(3):1027–1041Google Scholar
  25. Iwasaki T, Arakawa T, Tokida KI (1984) Simplified procedures for assessing soil liquefaction during earthquakes. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 3(1):49–58Google Scholar
  26. Kalkan E, Bayraktutan MS (2008) Geotechnical evaluation of Turkish clay deposits: a case study in Northern Turkey. Environ Geol 55:937–950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kalkan E, Yarbasi N (2007) Karasu Basin and liquefaction potential of alluvial deposits in the south of the basin. In: Proceedings of the 60th geological congress of Turkey, April 2007, General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  28. Kocyigit A, Ozturk A, Inal S, ve Gursoy H (1985) Tectonomorphology and mechanistic interpretation of the Karasu Basin (Erzurum). Bull Earth Sci 2:3–15Google Scholar
  29. Kocyigit A, Yilmaz A, Adamia S, Kuloshvili S (2001) Neotectonics of East Anatolian Plateau (Turkey) and Lesser Caucasus: implication for transition from thrusting to strike-slip faulting. Geodin Acta 14(1–3):177–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Maharaj RJ (1995) Engineering-geological mapping of the tropical soils for land-use planning and geotechnical purposes: a case study from Jamaica, West Indies. Eng Geol 40:243–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Padmini D, Ilamparuthi K, Sudheer KP (2008) Ultimate bearing capacity prediction of shallow foundations on cohesionless soils using neurofuzzy models. Comput Geotech 35(1):33–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pampal S (1991) Geotechnical mapping: pre study geotechnical mapping of Ankara and around of Ankara. J Fac Eng Arch Gazi Univ 6(1–2):1–23Google Scholar
  33. Ramakrishnan D, Tiwari KC (1999) Calcretic and ferricretic duricrust of the Thar desert, India: their geotechnical appraisal as a road paving aggregate. Eng Geol 53:13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schalkwjk AV, Price GV (1990) Engineering geological mapping for urban planning in developing countries. In: Proceedings of the sixth international congress of international association of engineering geology. Amsterdam, Netherlands, 6–10 August 1990Google Scholar
  35. Skempton AW (1986) Standard penetration test procedures and the effects in sands of overburden pressure, relative density, particle size, aging and overconsolidation. Geotechnique 36(3):425–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Terzaghi K, Peck RB (1948) Soil mechanics in engineering practice. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Terzaghi K, Peck RB (1967) Soil mechanics in engineering practice. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Topal T, Doyuran V, Karahanoglu N, Toprak M, Suzen ML, Yesilnacar E (2003) Microzonation for earthquake hazards: Yenisehir settlement, Bursa, Turkey. Eng Geol 70:93–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Van Rooy JL, Stiff JS (2001) Guidelines for urban engineering geological investigations in South Africa. Bull Eng Geol Environ 59:285–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yarbasi N (2001) Geotechnical mapping of the western part of Erzurum city. PhD thesis (in Turkish). Ataturk University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science, ErzurumGoogle Scholar
  41. Yarbasi N, Bayraktutan MS (2003) Geotechnical properties of the western part of the Erzurum city center. Geosound, Cukurova University. Sci Technol Bull Earth Sci 43:151–167Google Scholar
  42. Yilmaz M, Sirin F, Kadirov A, Bayraktutan MS, Kalkan E, Kilic AM, Kilic A (1999) Maximum magnitude map of the east Anatolia region. In: Proceedings of the international workshop on resent earthquakes and disaster prevention management, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, March 1999Google Scholar
  43. Zuquette LV, Pejon OJ, Collares JQ (2004) Engineering geological mapping developed in the Fortaleza Metropolitan Region, State of Ceara, Brazil. Eng Geol 71:227–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Earthquake Research CentreAtaturk UniversityErzurumTurkey
  2. 2.Oltu Vocational Training SchoolAtaturk UniversityErzurumTurkey

Personalised recommendations