Environmental Geology

, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 681–686 | Cite as

Evaluation of ecotourism potential in the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf

Original Article


This research has identified areas located in the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf in the south of Iran, as strategic and ecological sites, based on tourism potential assessing criteria. To this end coastal limits were identified by satellite imagery in terms of shorelines and the maximum extent of water approach into the land and taking into consideration the characteristics of the nearby coastal villages. The studied region was then compared to similar international criteria and experiences. The original criteria were then divided into three main and four sub criteria. The Kangan region was found to have a potential for tourism industry according to the mentioned criteria. Naiband Gulf with a score of 20 was ranked first followed by Asalouyeh with a score of 18 and finally Taheri and Kangan Ports with scores of 16 and 15, respectively. With a high tourism industry potential in the studied region the necessity of ecotourism quality enhancement and environmental management planning for the northern shoreline of the Persian Gulf becomes of vital importance.


Sustainable tourism Ecology criteria Coastal area Bushehr Persian Gulf 


  1. Burger J (2002) Tourism and ecosystem. In: Douglas, 1st edn. Causes and consequences of global climate change. Encyclopedia of global environmental change, vol 3. Wiley, Chichester, pp 597–609Google Scholar
  2. Camhis M, Coccossis H (1982) Coastal planning and management perspectives. Ekistics 49 293:92–97Google Scholar
  3. Capobianco M (1999) EU demonstration programme on integrated management in coastal zones 1997–1999: role and use of technologies in relation to ICZM. Final report, Tecnomare S.P.A., VeneziaGoogle Scholar
  4. Cater E (1993) Ecotourism in the third world: problems for sustainable tourism development. Tour Manage 14:85–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clark JR (1983) Coastal ecosystem management (a technical manual for the conservation of coastal zone resources). Wiley, New York, pp. 928Google Scholar
  6. Coccossis H (1996) Tourism and sustainability: perspectives and implications in sustainable tourism? In: Priestley G, Edwards A, Coccossis H (eds) London CAB International, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  7. Davenport J, Davenport J (2006) The impact of tourism and personal leisure transport on coastal environments: a review. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 67:280–292Google Scholar
  8. Driml S, Common M (1996) Ecological criteria for sustainable tourism: application to the Great Barrier Reef and wet tropics world heritage areas, Australia. J Sustain Tour 4:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. EC (1998) European Commission, DGXXIII.1998. Fact and figures on the European on holiday 1997–1998. Euro barometer, 48, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  10. FAO (1996) World information early warning system on plant genetic resource. http://www.fao.org/world/afghanistan/pubs_pgr_en.htm
  11. Font X, Tribe V (1999) Forest tourism and recreation. CABI Publication LONDON. Buckinghamshire chi tern’s University, WycombeGoogle Scholar
  12. Jarvilouma J (1992) Alternative tourism and the evolution of tourist area. Tour Manage 13:118–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kelly MG (1980) Remote sensing of seagrass beds. In: Phillips RC, Mc Roy CP (eds) Handbook of seagrass biology: an ecosystem perspective, Garland, New York, pp 69–86Google Scholar
  14. Madan S, Rawat L (2000) The impacts of tourism on the environment of Mussoorie, Garhwal Himalaya, India. Environmentalist 20(3):253–259Google Scholar
  15. Mciwem D (2006) Likely sensitivity of bottlenose dolphins to pile-driving noise. Water Environ J 20:48–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nash D, Butler R (1990) Alternative forms of tourism. Int J Hosp Manage 9:163–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nouri J, Malmasi S (2004) Environmental impact assessment of urban development plan by vulnerability model application. Int J Environ Sci Technol 1(1):7–15Google Scholar
  18. Pak A, Farajzadeh M (2007) Iran’s integrated coastal management plan: Persian Gulf, Oman Sea, and southern Caspian Sea coastlines. Ocean Coast Manage(in press)Google Scholar
  19. Pasqualini V, Pergent-Martini C, Fernandez C, Pergent G (1997) The use of airborne remote sensing for benthic cartography: advantages and reliability. Int J Remote Sens 185:1167–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sorensen J, McCreary S (1990) Institutional arrangements for managing coastal resources and environments, US Nat. Parks Service, Int. Affairs Office, DC (1990)Google Scholar
  21. Stewart S, Sckartjakrarini S (1994) Disentangling ecotourism. Ann Tour Res 21:840–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. US NEPA (1969) National Environmental Policy Act, Government Press, Washington, DC (1996)Google Scholar
  23. Weaver DB (1991) Alternative to mass tourism in Dominica. Ann Tour Res 18:414–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Weaver DB (1993) Ecotourism in the small Island Caribbean. Geo J 3:457–465Google Scholar
  25. Weaver DB (1999) Magnitude of ecotourism in Costa Rica and Kenya. Ann Tour Res 26:792–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Weaver DB (2005) Comprehensive and minimalist dimension of ecotourism. Ann Tour Res 32:432–455Google Scholar
  27. World Tourism Organization (WTO) (2004) http://www.world-tourism.org/facts

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jafar Nouri
    • 1
  • Afshin Danehkar
    • 2
  • Rozita Sharifipour
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthMedical Sciences/University of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural ResourcesUniversity of TehranKaradjIran
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Management, Graduate School of Environment and EnergyScience and Research Campus, IAUTehranIran

Personalised recommendations