Environmental Geology

, Volume 54, Issue 4, pp 745–758 | Cite as

Major ion chemistry, weathering processes and water quality assessment in upper catchment of Damodar River basin, India

  • Abhay Kumar SinghEmail author
  • G. C. Mondal
  • Suresh Kumar
  • T. B. Singh
  • B. K. Tewary
  • A. Sinha
Original Article


The chemical characteristics of surface, groundwater and mine water of the upper catchment of the Damodar River basin were studied to evaluate the major ion chemistry, geochemical processes controlling water composition and suitability of water for domestic, industrial and irrigation uses. Water samples from ponds, lakes, rivers, reservoirs and groundwater were collected and analysed for pH, EC, TDS, F, Cl, HCO3, SO4, NO3, Ca, Mg, Na and K. In general, Ca, Na, Mg, HCO3 and Cl dominate, except in samples from mining areas which have higher concentration of SO4. Water chemistry of the area reflects continental weathering, aided by mining and other anthropogenic impacts. Limiting groundwater use for domestic purposes are contents of TDS, F, Cl, SO4, NO3 and TH that exceed the desirable limits in water collected from mining and urban areas. The calculated values of SAR, RSC and %Na indicate good to permissible use of water for irrigation. High salinity, %Na, Mg-hazard and RSC values at some sites limit use for agricultural purposes.


Major ion chemistry Damodar River basin Water quality SAR RSC Anthropogenic India 



Dr. Abhay Kumar Singh is thankful to Department Science and Technology, Government of India for financial assistance in the form of Fast Tract Project (SR/FTP/ES-99/2001). Support extended by Dr. P. K. Singh, Dr. S. Singh, Mr A. Barat and Mr K. K. Singh is gratefully acknowledged. Thanks are due the anonymous referee of the journal, who helped immensely in rewriting the paper in terms of content and language.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abhay Kumar Singh
    • 1
    Email author
  • G. C. Mondal
    • 1
  • Suresh Kumar
    • 1
  • T. B. Singh
    • 1
  • B. K. Tewary
    • 1
  • A. Sinha
    • 1
  1. 1.Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research)DhanbadIndia

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