Hydrogeological framework and water balance studies in parts of Krishni–Yamuna interstream area, Western Uttar Pradesh, India
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The Krishni–Yamuna interstream area is a micro-watershed in the Central Ganga Plain and a highly fertile track of Western Uttar Pradesh. The Sugarcane and wheat are the major crops of the area. Aquifers of Quaternary age form the major source of Irrigation and municipal water supplies. A detailed hydrogeological investigation was carried out in the study area with an objective to assess aquifer framework, groundwater quality and its resource potential. The hydrogeological cross section reveals occurrence of alternate layers of clay and sand. Aquifer broadly behaves as a single bodied aquifer down to the depth of 100 m bgl (metre below ground level) as the clay layers laterally pinch out. The depth to water in the area varies between 5 and 16.5 m bgl. The general groundwater flow direction is from NE to SW with few local variations. An attempt has been made to evaluate groundwater resources of the area. The water budget method focuses on the various components contributing to groundwater flow and groundwater storage changes. Changes in ground water storage can be attributed to rainfall recharge, irrigation return flow and ground water inflow to the basin minus baseflow (ground water discharge to streams or springs), evapotranspiration from ground water, pumping and ground water outflow from the basin. The recharge is obtained in the study area using Water table fluctuation and Tritium methods. The results of water balance study show that the total recharge in to the interstream region is of the order of 185.25 million m3 and discharge from the study area is of the order of 203.24 million m3, leaving a deficit balance of −17.99 million m3. Therefore, the present status of groundwater development in the present study area has acquired the declining trend. Thus, the hydrogeological analysis and water balance studies shows that the groundwater development has attained a critical state in the region.
KeywordsHydrogeology Groundwater balance Irrigation return flows Muzaffarnagar India
The financial assistance received from INCOH, MoWR, Government of India, Project No. 23/36/2004-R&D is gratefully acknowledged. The authors express their gratitude to the reviewer of the manuscript, whose suggestion has improved the manuscript substantially. The authors are also thankful to Chairman, Department of Geology, A.M.U. Aligarh, for providing the basic facilities to carry out the research work.
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