Environmental Geology

, Volume 53, Issue 7, pp 1509–1528 | Cite as

Geochemical assessment of groundwater quality in vicinity of Bhalswa landfill, Delhi, India, using graphical and multivariate statistical methods

  • Sunil Kumar Srivastava
  • A. L. Ramanathan
Original Article


A geochemical assessment of groundwater quality and possible contamination in the vicinity of the Bhalswa landfill site was carried out by using a hydrochemical approach with graphical and multivariate statistical methods with the objective of identifying the occurrence of various geochemical processes and understanding the impact of landfill leachates on groundwater quality. Results indicate that nitrate, fluoride and heavy-metal pollution are in an alarming state with respect to the use of groundwater for drinking purposes. Various graphical plots and statistical analyses have been applied to the chemical data based on the ionic constituents, water types, and hydrochemical facies to infer the impact of the landfill on groundwater quality. The statistical analysis and spatial and temporal variations indicate the leaching of contaminants from the landfill to the groundwater aquifer system. The concentrations of heavy metals in the landfill leachates are as follows: Fe (22 mg/l), Mn (~20 mg/l), Cu (~10 mg/l), Pb (~2 mg/l), Ni (0.25 mg/l), Zn (~10 mg/l), Cd (~0.2 mg/l), Cl (~4,000 mg/l), SO 4 2− (~3,320 mg/l), PO 4 3− (~4 mg/l), NO 3 (30 mg/l) and fluoride (~50 mg/l); all were much higher than the standards. The study reveals that the landfill is in a depleted phase and is affecting groundwater quality in its vicinity and the surrounding area due to leaching of contaminants.


Landfill Heavy metals Leachates Delhi Hydrogeochemistry Groundwater quality 



We would like to thank the University Grant Commission for funding the Junior Research Fellowship to the first author, and also the second author is thankful to UGC and MOWR for partially funding this work in the form of project. This project is really quite helpful for field and analytical work. Thanks are due to the Central Pollution Control Board, Central Ground Water Board, Survey of India, and Indian Meteorological Department for providing the necessary data. Last, I would like to thank all my lab mates and authorities for providing necessary assistance during my research work in the School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. Thanks to all.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biogeochemistry/Groundwater Lab, Lab-208A/209, School of Environmental SciencesJawahalal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia

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