Advertisement

Environmental Geology

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 81–91 | Cite as

A liquefaction severity index suggested for engineering practice

  • H. Sonmez
  • C. Gokceoglu
Original Article

Abstract

One of the major tasks in earthquake geotechnical engineering is the preparation of liquefaction susceptibility maps. For this purpose, some indices associated with liquefaction susceptibility are used. However, the currently used indices have some limitations. In this study, a liquefaction severity index, which can be used in preparation of susceptibility maps, is suggested. The suggested severity index is applied to two sites selected from Taiwan (Yuanlin) and Turkey (Inegol) to examine performance. The application indicated that the suggested index shows a good performance for the selected sites, and can be considered as a tool for further studies.

Keywords

Earthquakes Inegol (Turkey) Liquefaction potential index Liquefaction severity index Yuanlin (Taiwan) 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors are very appreciative of Professor Dr. Resat Ulusay for his contributions to the manuscript. The authors would like to thank Professor Charng Hsein Juang for the liquefaction web-site presenting geotechnical data of 1999 Chi-Chi Taiwan earthquake.

References

  1. Andrews DC, Martin GR (2000) Criteria for liquefaction of silty sands. In: 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Auckland New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  2. Aydan O (1997) The seismic characteristics and the occurrence pattern of Turkish earthquakes. Turkish Earthquake Foundation Report TDV/TR 97-007Google Scholar
  3. Chen CJ, Juang CH (2000) Calibration of SPT- and CPT-based liquefaction evaluation methods. In: Mayne PW, Hryciw R (eds) Innovations and applications in geotechnical site characterization, Vol. 97. Geotechnical Special Publication, ASCE, Reston, pp 49–64Google Scholar
  4. Chu DB, Stewart JP, Lee S, Tsai JS, Lin PS, Chu BL, Seed RB, Hsu SC, Yu MS, Wang MCH (2004) Documentation of soil conditions at liquefaction and non-liquefaction sites from 1999 Chi-Chi (Taiwan) earthquake. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 24:647–657Google Scholar
  5. Finn WL, Ledbetter RH, Wu G (1994) Liquefaction in silty soils: design and analysis. Ground failures under siesmic conditions, Geotechnical Special Publication No. 44, ASCE, Reston, pp 51–79Google Scholar
  6. Iwasaki T, Tokida K, Tatsuoka F, Watanabe S, Yasuda S, Sato H (1982) Microzonation for soil liquefaction potential using simplified methods vol 3. In: Proceedings of 3rd international conference on microzonation, Seattle, pp 1319–1330Google Scholar
  7. Juang CH, Yuan H, Lee DH, Lin PS (2003) A simplified CPT-based method for evaluating liquefaction potential of soils. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 129 (1):66– 80Google Scholar
  8. Lee DH, Ku CS, Yuan H (2003) A study of the liquefaction risk potential at Yuanlin. Taiwan Eng Geol 71:97–117Google Scholar
  9. Liao S, Whitman RV (1986) Overburden correction factors for SPT in sand. J Geotech Eng ASCE 114(4):389–411Google Scholar
  10. MAA (2000) Soil Liquefaction assessment and remediation study phase I (Yuanlin, Dachun, and Shetou) (in Chinese). Summary Report and Appendices, Moh and Associates (MMA), Taipei, TaiwanGoogle Scholar
  11. Saroglu F, Emre O, Kuscu I (1992) Active fault map of Turkey. General Directory of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA), printed by MTA (scale:1/1.000.000), Ankara, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  12. Seed HB (1983) Earthquake-resistant design of earth dams. In: Proceedings of Symp. Seismic Des. of earth dams and caverns, ASCE, New York, pp 41–64Google Scholar
  13. Seed HB, DeAlba (1986) Use of the SPT and CPT tests for evaluating the liquefaction resistance of sands. In: Use of in-situ tests in geotechnical engineering, ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication 6:281–302Google Scholar
  14. Seed HB, Hander LF (1990) SPT-based analysis of cyclic pressure generation and undrained residual strength. In: Proceedings of H. Bolton Seed memorial symposium. BiTech Publishers Ltd., pp 351–376Google Scholar
  15. Seed HB, Idriss IM (1971) Simplified procedure for evaluating soil liquefaction potential. J Soil Mech Found Div ASCE 97(SM9):1249–1273Google Scholar
  16. Seed HB, Idriss IM (1982) Ground motions and soil liquefaction during earthquakes. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute University of CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  17. Seed HB, Tokimatsu K, Hander LF, Chung RM (1985) Influence of SPT procedures in soil liquefaction resistance evaluations. J Geotech Eng Div ASCE 111(2):1425–1445Google Scholar
  18. Sonmez H (2003) Modification to the liquefaction potential index and liquefaction susceptibility mapping for a liquefaction-prone area (Inegol-Turkey). Environ Geology 44(7):862–871Google Scholar
  19. Tutuz T, Sanver IE, Adil F (2000) Report on geological-geotechnical investigation of Inegol municipality settelement area (in Turkish). Ankara,Turkey 61pGoogle Scholar
  20. Ulusay R, Tuncay E, Sonmez H, Gokceoglu C (2004) An attenuation relationship based on Turkish strong motion data and iso-acceleration map of Turkey. Eng Geol 74:265–291Google Scholar
  21. Varnes DJ (1984) Landslide hazard zonation: a review of principles and practice, IAEG Commission on Landslides and other Mass Movements. UNESCO Press, Paris, p 63Google Scholar
  22. Wells DL, Coppersmith KJ (1994) New empirical relationships among magnitude, rupture length, rupture width, rupture area and surface displacement. Bull Seismol Soc Am 4(84):975–1002Google Scholar
  23. Youd TL, Idriss IM, Andrus RD, Arango I, Castro G, Christian JT, Dobry R, Finn WDL, Harder LF, Hynes ME, Ishihara K, Koester JP, Liao SSC, Marcuson WF III, Martin GR, Mitchell JK, Moriwaki Y, Power MS, Robertson PK, Seed RB, Stokoe KH II (2001) Liquefaction resistance of soils: Summary report from the 1996 NCEER and 1998 NCEER/NSF workshops on evaluation of liquefaction resistance of soils. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng, pp 817–833Google Scholar
  24. Yuan H, Yang SH, Andrus RD, Juang H (2003) Liquefaction-induced ground failure: a study of the Chi-Chi earthquake cases. Eng Geol 17:141–155Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering, Geological Engineering Department, Applied Geology DivisionHacettepe UniversityBeytepe-AnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations