Environmental Geology

, Volume 45, Issue 8, pp 1109–1117 | Cite as

Kinetics and Equilibrium Sorption Studies of 4-Nitrophenol on pyrolyzed and activated oil shale residue

  • Sameer Al-Asheh
  • Fawzi Banat
  • Asmahan Masad
Original Article


Sorption of the organic pollutant 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by pyrolyzed and activated Jordanian oil-shale was studied. Pyrolyzed oil shale was prepared using a fluidized bed reactor at 520 °C in the presence of nitrogen. Physical activation was carried out by treating the pyrolyzed oil shale with CO2 at 830 °C, while chemical activation was achieved by using KOH and ZnCl2 as impregnating agents. Batch kinetics and isotherm studies were conducted to evaluate the sorption process. Effects of contact time, initial sorbate concentration, sorbent concentration, temperature, pH and inorganic salts (NaCl and KCl) on the sorption process by the different sorbents were considered. Chemically activated oil shale, pretreated with ZnCl2, gave the highest uptake of 4-NP. The isotherm experimental data fit reasonably well to Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Paterson models. Three kinetic models, namely the Morris-Weber, Lagergren, and Pseudo-Second-Order model (PSOM), were applied to represent the experimental results for both pyrolyzed and ZnCl2-oil shale sorbents.


Oil shale Physical activation Chemical activation 4-Nitrophenol Jordan 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringJordan University of Science and TechnologyIrbidJordan

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