Environmental Geology

, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 478–489 | Cite as

Hydrogeochemical characterization of major factors affecting the quality of shallow groundwater in the coastal area at Kimje in South Korea

  • J. H. Kim
  • R. H. Kim
  • J. Lee
  • H. W. Chang
Original Article


This study has evaluated the main hydrogeochemical characteristics that affect the quality of shallow groundwater in the coastal area at Kimje in South Korea. In this area, the chemical composition of groundwater is mostly classified into Na+−Cl and Ca2++Mg2+−NO3-+Cl types. These types are affected by three major factors: seawater intrusion, fertilizers and redox processes. The Na+−Cl type, which is generally localized in the coastal area, shows typical characteristics of groundwater affected not only by modern seawater but also by old seawater residing in the reclaimed land. In contrast, the Ca2++Mg2+−NO3-+Cl type, which is usually found inland, is very contaminated by fertilizers. As groundwater flows from the inland area to the coast, the redox condition changes from an oxic condition to a suboxic/anoxic condition. In addition, the reclamation has caused a large amount of underlying organic matter. These effects provide optimum conditions for the occurrence of redox processes in the coastal area.


Na+−Cltype Seawater intrusion Ca2++Mg2+−NO3+Cl type Fertilizers Redox processes Kimje South Korea 



This study was financially supported by Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (R01-1998-000-00115-0) and the Group for Natural Hazard Research, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources. The authors also thank to BK21 program, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University. We would also like to thank Dr. Jin Yong Lee at Geogreen 21 Co. Ltd. and Dr. Don Sunwoo at Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources for their assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Petroleum and Marine Resources Research DivisionKorea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral ResourcesDaejeon Korea
  2. 2.School of Earth and Environmental SciencesSeoul National UniversitySeoul Korea
  3. 3.School of Earth and Environmental SciencesSeoul National UniversitySeoul Korea
  4. 4.School of Earth and Environmental SciencesSeoul National UniversitySeoul Korea

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