Biosynthesis of gibberellins in Gibberella fujikuroi: biomolecular aspects
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Gibberellins (GAs) are a large family of isoprenoid plant hormones, some of which are bioactive growth regulators, controlling seed germination, stem elongation, and flowering. The rice pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi (mating population C) is able to produce large amounts of GAs, especially the bioactive compounds gibberellic acid (GA3) and its precursors, GA4 and GA7. The main steps of the biosynthetic pathway have long been established from the identification of intermediates in wild-type G. fujikuroi and mutant strains. However, the genetics of the fungus have been rather under-developed, and molecular genetic studies of the GA pathway started just recently. The progress in researching GA biosynthesis in the last 2 years resulted primarily from development of the molecular tools, e.g. transformation systems for the fungus, and cloning the genes encoding GA biosynthesis enzymes, such as the bifunctional ent-copalyl diphosphate/kaurene synthase and several cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. The availability of these genes opened new horizons both for detailed study of the pathway and the regulation mechanisms at the molecular level, and for modern strain improvement programs. This review gives a short overview of the well-known physiological and biochemical studies and concentrates mainly on the new molecular genetic data from GA research, including new information on the regulation of GA biosynthesis.
KeywordsGibberellin Gibberellic Acid Transformation System Isoprenoid Stem Elongation
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