Biodegradation of azo and phthalocyanine dyes by Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta
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Eighteen fungal strains, known for their ability to degrade lignocellulosic material or lignin derivatives, were screened for their potential to decolorize commercially used reactive textile dyes. Three azo dyes, Reactive Orange 96, Reactive Violet 5 and Reactive Black 5, and two phthalocyanine dyes, Reactive Blue 15 and Reactive Blue 38, were chosen as representatives of commercially used reactive dyes. From the 18 tested fungal strains only Bjerkandera adusta, Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were able to decolorize all the dyes tested. During degradation of the nickel-phthalocyanine complex, Reactive Blue 38, by B. adusta and T. versicolor respectively, the toxicity of this dye to Vibrio fischeri was significantly reduced. In the case of Reactive Violet 5, a far-reaching detoxification was achieved by treatment with B. adusta. Reactive Blue 38 and Reactive Violet 5 were decolorized by crude exoenzyme preparations from T. versicolor and B. adusta in a H2O2-dependent reaction. Specific activities of the exoenzyme preparations with the dyes were determined and compared to oxidation rates by commercial horseradish peroxidase.
KeywordsLignin Biodegradation Phthalocyanine Vibrio Fungal Strain
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