Novel strategy to improve the colonizing ability of Irpex lacteus in non-sterile wheat straw for enhanced rumen and enzymatic digestibility

  • 75 Accesses


Pretreatment with white rot fungi is a promising method to enhance the digestibility of lignocelluloses; however, sterilization of feedstocks prior to inoculation is one of the costliest steps. To improve the colonizing ability of white rot fungi under non-sterile condition, Irpex lacteus, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were inoculated in the wheat straw ensiled for 28 days and incubated for 56 days to determine the changes in microbe counts, organic acid content, chemical composition, and rumen and enzymatic digestibility. Results showed that ensiling produced abundant organic acids and suppressed most microbes in wheat straw. Significant growth of I. lacteus was observed after 3 days of incubation, and molds were only detectable at day 7 in the group. At the end of incubation, aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria decreased by 18% and 38% in the wheat straw treated with I. lacteus, but molds, aerobic bacteria, and lactic acid bacteria thrived in those treated with P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium. Even more, P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium increased the lignin content of the ensiled wheat straw by 34% and 65%. However, I. lacteus selectively degraded lignin by 28% and improved the rumen and enzymatic digestibility by 18% and 34%. The finding indicates that ensiling prior to fermentation with I. lacteus is an effective method to control spoilage microbes and to enhance the rumen and enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 199

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5


  1. Badhan A, Jin L, Wang Y, Han S, Kowalczys K, Brown DC, Ayala CJ, Latoszek-Green M, Miki B, Tsang A, McAllister T (2014) Expression of a fungal ferulic acid esterase in alfalfa modifies cell wall digestibility. Biotechnol Biofuels 7:39.

  2. Borràs E, Caminal G, Sarrà M, Novotný Č (2010) Effect of soil bacteria on the ability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal by Trametes versicolor and Irpex lacteus from contaminated soil. Soil Biol Biochem 42:2087–2093.

  3. Broach JR (2012) Nutritional control of growth and development in yeast. Genetics 192:73–105.

  4. Broderick GA and Kang JH (1980) Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acid in ruminal fluid and in vitro media. J Dairy Sci 63: 64–75.

  5. Ding C, Wang X, Li M (2019) Evaluation of six white-rot fungal pretreatments on corn stover for the production of cellulolytic and ligninolytic enzymes, reducing sugars, and ethanol. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 103:5641–5652.

  6. Dunière L, Sindou J, Chaucheyras-Durand F, Chevallier I, Thévenot-Sergentet D (2013) Silage processing and strategies to prevent persistence of undesirable microorganisms. Anim Feed Sci Technol 182:1–15.

  7. Gao D, Zeng Y, Wen X, Qian Y (2008) Competition strategies for the incubation of white rot fungi under non-sterile conditions. Process Biochem 43:937–944.

  8. González J, Faríamármol J, Rodríguez CA, Martínez A (2007) Effects of ensiling on ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of Italian rye-grass. Anim Feed Sci Technol 136:38–50.

  9. Lang E, Kleeberg I, Zadrazil F (1997) Competition of Pleurotus sp. and Dichomitus squalens with soil microorganisms during lignocellulose decomposition. Bioresour Technol 60: 95–99.

  10. Johnston SR, Boddy L, Weightman AJ (2016) Bacteria in decomposing wood and their interactions with wood-decay fungi. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 92:fiw179.

  11. Johnston SR, Hiscox J, Savoury M, Boddy L, Weightman AJ (2018) Highly competitive fungi manipulate bacterial communities in decomposing beech wood (Fagus sylvatica). FEMS Microbiol Ecol 95:fiy225.

  12. Jonsson L, Martin C (2016) Pretreatment of lignocellulose: formation of inhibitory by-products and strategies for minimizing their effects. Bioresour Technol 199:103–112.

  13. Jourdier E, Poughon L, Larroche C, Ben Chaabane F (2013) Comprehensive study and modeling of acetic acid effect on Trichoderma reesei growth. Ind Biotechnol 9:132–138.

  14. Kainthola J, Kalamdhad AS, Goud VV, Goel R (2019) Fungal pretreatment and associated kinetics of rice straw hydrolysis to accelerate methane yield from anaerobic digestion. Bioresour Technol 286:121368.

  15. Kumar MN, Ravikumar R, Sankar MK, Thenmozhi S (2018) New insight into the effect of fungal mycelia present in the bio-pretreated paddy straw on their enzymatic saccharification and optimization of process parameters. Bioresour Technol 267:291–302.

  16. Liaud N, Giniés C, Navarro D, Fabre N, Crapart S, Herpoël-Gimbert I, Levasseur A, Raouche S, Sigoillot JC (2014) Exploring fungal biodiversity: organic acid production by 66 strains of filamentous fungi. Fungal Biol Biotechnol 1:1–10.

  17. Libra JA, Borchert M, Banit S (2003) Competition strategies for the decolorization of a textile-reactive dye with the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor under non-sterile conditions. Biotechnol Bioeng 82:736–744.

  18. Lynch J, O'kiely P, Murphy R, Doyle E (2014) Changes in chemical composition and digestibility of three maize stover components digested by white-rot fungi. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 98:731–738.

  19. Muck RE (2010) Silage microbiology and its control through additives. Rev Bras Zootec 39:183–191.

  20. Murphy RP (1958) A method for the extraction of plant samples and the determination of total soluble carbohydrates. J Sci Food Agric 9:714–717.

  21. Ning T, Wang H, Zheng M, Niu D, Zuo S, Xu C (2017) Effects of microbial enzymes on starch and hemicellulose degradation in total mixed ration silages. Asian Australas J Anim Sci 30:171–180.

  22. Ni K, Wang Y, Pang H, Cai Y (2014) Effect of cellulase and lactic acid bacteria on fermentation quality and chemical composition of wheat straw silage. Am J Plant Sci 5:1877–1884.

  23. Niu D, Zuo S, Jiang D, Tian P, Zheng M, Xu C (2018a) Treatment using white rot fungi changed the chemical composition of wheat straw and enhanced digestion by rumen microbiota in vitro. Anim Feed Sci Technol 237:46–54.

  24. Niu D, Zheng M, Zuo S, Jiang D, Xu C (2018b) Effects of maize meal and limestone on the fermentation profile and aerobic stability of smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) silage. Grass Forage Sci 73:622–629.

  25. Novotný Č, Rawal B, Bhatt M, Patel M, Šašek V, Molitoris HP (2001) Capacity of Irpex lacteus and Pleurotus ostreatus for decolorization of chemically different dyes. J Biotechnol 89: 113–122.

  26. Salvachúa D, Prieto A, Vaquero ME, Martínez ÁT, Martínez MJ (2013) Sugar recoveries from wheat straw following treatments with the fungus Irpex lacteus. Bioresour Technol 131:218–225.

  27. Savoie JM, Mata G, Mamoun M (2001) Variability in brown line formation and extracellular laccase production during interaction between white-rot basidiomycetes and Trichoderma harzianum biotype Th2. Mycologia 93:243–248.

  28. Selig M, Weiss N, Ji Y (2008) Enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Technical Report: NREL/TP-510-42629; Golden, CO, 2008

  29. Šlosarčíková P, Novotný Č, Malachová K, Válková H, Fojtík J (2017) Effect of yeasts on biodegradation potential of immobilized cultures of white rot fungi. Sci Total Environ 589:146–152.

  30. Song L, Yu H, Ma F, Zhang X (2013) Biological pretreatment under non-sterile conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover. BioResources 8:3802–3816.

  31. Svobodová K, Majcherczyk A, Novotný Č, Kües U (2008) Implication of mycelium-associated laccase from Irpex lacteus in the decolorization of synthetic dyes. Bioresour Technol 99:463–471.

  32. Tejirian A, Xu F (2010) Inhibition of cellulase-catalyzed lignocellulosic hydrolysis by iron and oxidative metal ions and complexes. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:7673–7682.

  33. Thomsen ST, Londoño JEG, Ambyejensen M, Heiske S, Kádár Z, Meyer AS (2016) Combination of ensiling and fungal delignification as effective wheat straw pretreatment. Biotechnol Biofuels 9:16.

  34. Tuyen VD, Cone JW, Baars JJ, Sonnenberg AS, Hendriks WH (2012) Fungal strain and incubation period affect chemical composition and nutrient availability of wheat straw for rumen fermentation. Bioresour Technol 111:336–342.

  35. Tuyen DV, Phuong HN, Cone JW, Baars JJP, Sonnenberg ASM, Hendriks WH (2013) Effect of fungal treatments of fibrous agricultural by-products on chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation and methane production. Bioresour Technol 129:256–263.

  36. Van Soest P, Robertson J, Lewis B (1991) Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci 74: 3583–3597.

  37. Vasco-Correa J, Ge X, Li Y (2016) Fungal pretreatment of non-sterile miscanthus for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis. Bioresour Technol 203:118–123.

  38. Wan C, Li Y (2012) Fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Biotechnol Adv 30:1447–1457.

  39. Wang H, Hao W, Ning T, Zheng M, Xu C (2018) Characterization of culturable yeast species associating with whole crop corn and total mixed ration silage. Asian Australas J Anim Sci 31:198–207.

  40. Yahaya MS, Kimura A, Harai J, Nguyen HV, Kawai M, Takahashi J, Matsuoka S (2001) Effect of length of ensiling on silo degradation and digestibility of structural carbohydrates of lucerne and orchardgrass. Anim Feed Sci Technol 92:141–148.

  41. Yan T, Agnew R (2004) Prediction of metabolisable energy concentrations from nutrient digestibility and chemical composition in grass silages offered to sheep at maintenance. Anim Feed Sci Technol 117:197–213.

  42. Yang H, Wang XF, Liu JB, Gao LJ, Ishii M, Igarashi Y, Cui Z (2006) Effects of water-soluble carbohydrate content on silage fermentation of wheat straw. J Biosci Bioeng 101:232–237.

  43. Yang Y, Zhou J, Lu H, Yuan Y, Zhao L (2011) Isolation and characterization of a fungus Aspergillus sp strain F-3 capable of degrading alkali lignin. Biodegradation 22:1017–1027.

  44. Zhao J, Ge X, Vasco-Correa J, Li Y (2014) Fungal pretreatment of unsterilized yard trimmings for enhanced methane production by solid-state anaerobic digestion. Bioresour Technol 158:248–252.

  45. Zuo S, Niu D, Zheng M, Jiang D, Tian P, Li R, Xu C (2018) Effect of Irpex lacteus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus cystidiosus pretreatment of corn stover on its improvement of the in vitro rumen fermentation. J Sci Food Agric 98:4287–4295.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Chuncheng Xu.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethics approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Niu, D., Zuo, S., Ren, J. et al. Novel strategy to improve the colonizing ability of Irpex lacteus in non-sterile wheat straw for enhanced rumen and enzymatic digestibility. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 104, 1347–1355 (2020).

Download citation


  • Enzymatic hydrolysis
  • Pretreatment
  • Rumen digestibility
  • Wheat straw
  • White rot fungi