Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 104, Issue 3, pp 967–979 | Cite as

Calanus oil in the treatment of obesity-related low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis

  • Amin Gasmi
  • Pavan Kumar Mujawdiya
  • Mariia Shanaida
  • Adrien Ongenae
  • Roman Lysiuk
  • Monica Daniela DoşaEmail author
  • Oxana Tsal
  • Salva Piscopo
  • Salvatore Chirumbolo
  • Geir BjørklundEmail author


Calanus oil (COil) is a natural product extracted from marine zooplankton Calanus finmarchicus found in the North Atlantic Ocean. This oil is rich in wax esters of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and has been projected as the best alternative to fish oil because its production cannot keep pace with the demands from the growing markets. The COil is the only commercially available marine source of wax esters, whereas classic ω-3 PUFAs comes from triglycerides, ethyl esters, and phospholipids. It has, in recent decades, been seen that there is an unprecedented rise in the use of PUFA-rich oil in the aquaculture industry. A simultaneous rise in the demand of PUFAs is also observed in the health care industry, where PUFAs are suggested preventing various disorders related to lifestyles such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, chronic low-grade inflammation, atherosclerosis, and brain and cardiovascular disorders (CVDs). In this review, we will explore the metabolic aspects related to the use of COil as an antioxidant, anticholesterinemic, and anti-inflammatory dietary source and its impact on the prevention and therapy of obesity-related metabolic disorders.


Calanus oil Calanus finmarchicus Polyunsaturated fatty acid Wax esters Astaxanthin 


Author contributions

All authors confirmed they have contributed to the intellectual content of this paper and have met the following three requirements: (a) significant contributions to the conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (b) drafting or revising the article for intellectual content; and (c) final approval of the published article.


The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Adrien Ongenae and Salva Piscopo work for Nutrilogics SA, a company producing natural dietary supplements. No one of the other authors has any conflict of interest to declare.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Société Francophone de Nutrithérapie et de Nutrigénétique AppliquéeVilleurbanneFrance
  2. 2.Birla Institute of Technology and Science-PilaniHyderabadIndia
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacognosy and Medical BotanyI. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical UniversityTernopilUkraine
  4. 4.Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical UniversityLvivUkraine
  5. 5.CONEM Ukraine Life Science Research Group, Department of Pharmacognosy and BotanyDanylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical UniversityLvivUkraine
  6. 6.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of MedicineOvidius UniversityConstantaRomania
  7. 7.Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement SciencesUniversity of VeronaVeronaItaly
  8. 8.CONEM Scientific SecretaryVeronaItaly
  9. 9.Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM)Mo i RanaNorway

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