Advertisement

Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 103, Issue 23–24, pp 9305–9320 | Cite as

Lignocellulosic biomass: Hurdles and challenges in its valorization

  • Mamata S. SinghviEmail author
  • Digambar V. Gokhale
Mini-Review

Abstract

Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is globally available and sustainable feedstock containing sugar-rich platform that can be converted to biofuels and specialty products through appropriate processing. This review focuses on the efforts required for the development of sustainable and economically viable lignocellulosic biorefinery to produce carbon neutral biofuels along with the specialty chemicals. Sustainable biomass processing is a global challenge that requires the fulfillment of fundamental demands concerning economic efficiency, environmental compatibility, and social responsibility. The key technical challenges in continuous biomass supply and the biological routes for its saccharification with high yields of sugar sources have not been addressed in research programs dealing with biomass processing. Though many R&D endeavors have directed towards biomass valorization over several decades, the integrated production of biofuels and chemicals still needs optimization from both technical and economical perspectives. None of the current pretreatment methods has advantages over others since their outcomes depend on the type of feedstock, downstream process configuration, and many other factors. Consolidated bio-processing (CBP) involves the use of single or consortium of microbes to deconstruct biomass without pretreatment. The use of new genetic engineering tools for natively cellulolytic microbes would make the CBP process low cost and ecologically friendly. Issues arising with chemical characteristics and rigidity of the biomass structure can be a setback for its viability for biofuel conversion. Integration of functional genomics and system biology with synthetic biology and metabolic engineering undoubtedly led to generation of efficient microbial systems, albeit with limited commercial potential. These efficient microbial systems with new metabolic routes can be exploited for production of commodity chemicals from all the three components of biomass. This paper provides an overview of the challenges that are faced by the processes converting LCB to commodity chemicals with special reference to biofuels.

Keywords

Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) Biomass pretreatment Biomass supply chain Cellulosic ethanol Consolidated bio-processing 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. Abdel-Hamid AM, Solbiati JO, Cann IK (2013) Insights into lignin degradation and its potential industrial applications. Adv Appl Microbiol 82:1–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adsul M, Bastawde KB, Gokhale DV (2009) Biochemical characterization of two xylanases from yeast Pseudozyma hubeiensis producing only xylooligosaccharides. Bioresour Technol 100:6488–6495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adsul MG, Varma AJ, Gokhale DV (2007) Lactic acid production from waste sugarcane bagasse derived cellulose. Green Chem 9:58–62Google Scholar
  4. Agbor VB, Cicek N, Sparling R, Berlin A, Levin DB (2011) Biomass pretreatment: fundamentals toward application. Biotechnol Adv 29:675–685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ali SS, Nugent B, Mullins E, Doohan FM (2016) Fungal-mediated consolidated bioprocessing: the potential of Fusarium oxysporum for the lignocellulosic ethanol industry. AMB Exp6:13Google Scholar
  6. Almeida JR, Modig T, Petersson A, Hähn-Hägerdal B, Lidén G, Gorwa-Grauslund MF (2007) Increased tolerance and conversion of inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 82:340–349Google Scholar
  7. Alonso DM, Wettstein SG, Dumesic JA (2013) Gamma-valerolactone, a sustainable platform molecule derived from lignocellulosic biomass. Green Chem 15:584–595Google Scholar
  8. Amore A, Ciesielski PN, Lin CY, Salvachúa D, i Nogué VS (2016) Development of lignocellulosic biorefinery technologies: recent advances and current challenges. Aus J Chem 69:1201-1218Google Scholar
  9. Amorim C, Silvério SC, Rodrigues LR (2019) One-step process for producing prebiotic arabino-xylooligosaccharides from brewer’s spent grain employing. Trichoderma species. Food Chem 270:86–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Barakat A, de Vries H, Rouau X (2013) Dry fractionation process as an important step in current and future lignocellulose biorefineries: a review. Bioresource Technol 134:362–373Google Scholar
  11. Beckham GT, Johnson CW, Karp EM, Salvachúa D, Vardon DR (2016) Opportunities and challenges in biological lignin valorization. Curr Opin Biotechnol 42:40–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Blanch HW, Simmons BA, Klein-Marcuschamer D (2011) Biomass deconstruction to sugars. Biotechnol J6:1086–1102Google Scholar
  13. Braga CM, da Silva DP, da Silva Lima DJ, Paixão DA, da Cruz Pradella JG, Farinas CS (2014) Addition of feruloyl esterase and xylanase produced on-site improves sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis. Bioresour Technol 170:316–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brandt A, Gräsvik J, Hallett JP, Welton T (2013) Deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass with ionic liquids. Green Chem 15:550–583Google Scholar
  15. Bruijnincx PC, Rinaldi R, Weckhuysen BM (2015) Unlocking the potential of a sleeping giant: lignins as sustainable raw materials for renewable fuels, chemicals and materials. Green Chem 17:4860–4861Google Scholar
  16. Burgin T, Ståhlberg J, Mayes HB (2018) Advantages of a distant cellulase catalytic base. J Biol Chem 293:4680–4687PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Bussamra BC, Freitas S, da Costa AC (2015) Improvement on sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis using enzymatic mixture designed cocktail. Bioresour Technol 187:173–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chandna S, Thakur NS, Reddy YN, Kaur R, Bhaumik J (2019) Engineering lignin stabilized bimetallic nanocomplexes: structure, mechanistic elucidation, antioxidant, and antimicrobial potential. ACS Biomater Sci Eng 5:3212–3227Google Scholar
  19. Chastel CF, Navarro D, Haon M, Grisel S, Gimbert IS, Chevret D, Fanuel M, Henrissat B, Heiss-Blanquet S, Margeot A, Berrin JG (2019) AA16, a new lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase family identified in fungal secretomes. Biotechnol Biofuels 12:55Google Scholar
  20. Chen X, Wang W, Ciesielski P, Trass O, Park S, Tao L, Tucker MP (2015) Improving sugar yields and reducing enzyme loadings in the deacetylation and mechanical refining (DMR) process through multistage disk and Szego refining and corresponding techno-economic analysis. ACS Sust Chem Engin 4:324–333Google Scholar
  21. Chen Y, Stevens MA, Zhu Y, Holmes J, Xu H (2013) Understanding of alkaline pretreatment parameters for corn stover enzymatic saccharification. Biotechnol Biofuels 6:8PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Chylenski P, Forsberg Z, Ståhlberg J, Várnai A, Lersch M, Bengtsson O, Sæbø S, Horn SJ, Eijsink VG (2017) Development of minimal enzyme cocktails for hydrolysis of sulfite-pulped lignocellulosic biomass. J Biotechnol 246:16–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ciesielski PN, Crowley MF, Nimlos MR, Sanders AW, Wiggins GM, Robichaud D, Donohoe BS, Foust TD (2014) Biomass particle models with realistic morphology and resolved microstructure for simulations of intraparticle transport phenomena. Energy Fuels 29:242–254Google Scholar
  24. Ciesielski PN, Matthews JF, Tucker MP, Beckham GT, Crowley MF, Himmel ME, Donohoe BS (2013) 3D electron tomography of pretreated biomass informs atomic modeling of cellulose microfibrils. ACS nano7:8011-8019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cunha JT, Soares PO, Romani A, Thevelein JM, Domingues L (2019) Xylose fermentation efficiency of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast with separate or combined xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase and xylose isomerase pathways. Biotechnol. Biofuels 12:20PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. de Jong E, Jungmeier G (2015) Biorefinery concepts in comparison to petrochemical refineries. Industrial Bioref & White Biotechnol Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 3–33Google Scholar
  27. Demain AL (2005) Newcomb M and Wu JD, Cellulase, clostridia, and ethanol. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 69:124–154PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Dessie W, Xin F, Zhang W, Jiang Y, Wu H, Ma J, Jiang M (2018) Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 102:9893–9910PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ding SY, Liu YS, Zeng Y, Himmel ME, Baker JO, Bayer EA (2012) How does plant cell wall nanoscale architecture correlate with enzymatic digestibility? Science 338:1055–1060PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. dos Reis TF, de Lima PB, Parachin NS, Mingossi FB, de Castro Oliveira JV, Ries LN, Goldman GH (2016) Identification and characterization of putative xylose and cellobiose transporters in Aspergillus nidulans. Biotechnol Biofuels 9:204PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Dutta K, Daverey A, Lin JG (2014) Evolution retrospective for alternative fuels: first to fourth generation. Renewable energy 69:114–122Google Scholar
  32. Feng Q, Liu ZL, Weber SA, Li S (2018) Signature pathway expression of xylose utilization in the genetically engineered industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PloS one 13:e0195633PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Fernandes AN, Thomas LH, Altaner CM, Callow P, Forsyth VT, Apperley DC, Kennedy CJ, Jarvis MC (2011) Nanostructure of cellulose microfibrils in spruce wood. Proc Nat Acad Sci 108:E1195–E1203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fincher GB (2009) Revolutionary times in our understanding of cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling in the grasses. Plant physiol 149:27–37PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Gräsvik J, Winestrand S, Normark M, Jönsson LJ, Mikkola JP (2014) Evaluation of four ionic liquids for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. BMC Biotechnol 14:34PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Hassan SS, Williams GA, Jaiswal AK (2019) Lignocellulosic biorefineries in Europe: current state and prospects. Trends Biotechnol 37:231–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hasunuma T, Ismail KS, Nambu Y, Kondo A (2014) Co-expression of TAL1 and ADH1 in recombinant xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the presence of furfural. J Biosci Bioeng 117:165–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Himmel ME, Ding SY, Johnson DK, Adney WS, Nimlos MR, Brady JW, Foust TD (2007) Biomass recalcitrance: engineering plants and enzymes for biofuels production. Science 315:804–807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Himmel ME, Xu Q, Luo Y, Ding SY, Lamed R, Bayer EA (2010) Microbial enzyme systems for biomass conversion: emerging paradigms. Biofuels 1:323–341Google Scholar
  40. Hinman ND, Schell DJ, Riley J, Bergeron PW, Walter PJ (1992) Preliminary estimate of the cost of ethanol production for SSF technology. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 34:639Google Scholar
  41. Hong J, Yang H, Zhang K, Liu C, Zou S, Zhang M (2014) Development of a cellulolytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with enhanced cellobiohydrolase activity. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 30:2985–2993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Huang S, Xue T, Wang Z, Ma Y, He X, Hong J, Zou S, Song H, Zhang M (2018) Furfural-tolerant Zymomonas mobilis derived from error-prone PCR-based whole genome shuffling and their tolerant mechanism. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 102:3337–3347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Inouye H, Zhang Y, Yang L, Venugopalan N, Fischetti RF, Gleber SC, Vogt S, Fowle W, Makowski B, Tucker M, Ciesielski P (2014) Multiscale deconstruction of molecular architecture in corn stover. Sci Rep 4:3756PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Isikgor FH, Becer CR (2015) Lignocellulosic biomass: a sustainable platform for the production of bio-based chemicals and polymers. Polymer Chem 6:4497–4559Google Scholar
  45. Jain AK, Khanna M, Erickson M, Huang HX (2010) An integrated biogeochemical and economic analysis of bioenergy crops in the Midwestern United States. Global Change Biol. Bioener 2(5):217–234Google Scholar
  46. Joshi CP, Bhandari S, Ranjan P, Kalluri UC, Liang X, Fujino T, Samuga A (2004) Genomics of cellulose biosynthesis in poplars. New Phytol 164:53–61Google Scholar
  47. Jung YH, Kim S, Yang J, Seo JH, Kim KH (2017) Intracellular metabolite profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae evolved under furfural. Microb Biotechnol 10:395–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kallioinen A, Puranen T, Siika-aho M (2014) Mixtures of thermostable enzymes show high performance in biomass saccharification. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 173:1038–1056PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kang MK, Nielsen J (2017) Biobased production of alkanes and alkenes through metabolic engineering of microorganisms. J Indus Microbiol Biotechnol 44:613–622Google Scholar
  50. Keegstra K, Walton J (2006) β-Glucans—brewer’s bane, dietician’s delight. Science 311:1872–1873PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kissin YV (2001) Chemical mechanisms of catalytic cracking over solid acidic catalysts: alkanes and alkenes. Catalysis Reviews 43:85–146Google Scholar
  52. Klein-Marcuschamer D, Blanch HW (2015) Renewable fuels from biomass: technical hurdles and economic assessment of biological routes. AIChE J 61:2689–2701Google Scholar
  53. Klein-Marcuschamer D, Oleskowicz-Popiel P, Simmons BA, Blanch HW (2012) The challenge of enzyme cost in the production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Biotechnol Bioeng 109:1083–1087PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Klein-Marcuschamer D, Simmons BA, Blanch HW (2011) Techno-economic analysis of a lignocellulosic ethanol biorefinery with ionic liquid pre-treatment. Biofuel Bioprod Bioref 5:562–569Google Scholar
  55. Koshland DE Jr (1953) Stereochemistry and the mechanism of enzymatic reactions. Biol Rev 28:416–436Google Scholar
  56. Kuhad RC, Gupta R, Singh A (2011) Microbial cellulases and their industrial applications. Enzyme Res Article ID 280696Google Scholar
  57. Kumar M, Thammannagowda S, Bulone V, Chiang V, Han KH, Joshi CP, Mansfield SD, Mellerowicz E, Sundberg B, Teeri T, Ellis BE (2009) An update on the nomenclature for the cellulose synthase genes in Populus. Trends Plant Sci 14:248–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kwak S, Jin YS (2017) Production of fuels and chemicals from xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a review and perspective. Microb Cell Factory 16:82Google Scholar
  59. Lamers P, Tan EC, Searcy EM, Scarlata CJ, Cafferty KG, Jacobson JJ (2015) Strategic supply system design—a holistic evaluation of operational and production cost for a biorefinery supply chain. Biofuels Bioprod Bioref 9:648–660Google Scholar
  60. Leggio LL, Simmons TJ, Poulsen JC, Frandsen KE, Hemsworth GR, Stringer MA, Von Freiesleben P, Tovborg M, Johansen KS, De Maria L, Harris PV (2015) Structure and boosting activity of a starch-degrading lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase. Nature Comm 6:5961Google Scholar
  61. Lewandowski I (2015) Securing a sustainable biomass supply in a growing bioeconomy. Global Food Security 6:34–42Google Scholar
  62. Li H, Schmitz O, Alper HS (2016) Enabling glucose/xylose co-transport in yeast through the directed evolution of a sugar transporter. Appl Microbiol100:10215-10223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Li J, Xu J, Cai P, Wang B, Ma Y, Benz JP, Tian C (2015) Functional analysis of two L-arabinose transporters from filamentous fungi reveals promising characteristics for improved pentose utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol 81:4062–4070PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Li X, Wu HX, Dillon SK, Southerton SG (2009) Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from six developing xylem libraries in Pinus radiata D. Don. BMC Genomics 10:41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Li X, Wu HX, Southerton SG (2011) Transcriptome profiling of Pinus radiata juvenile wood with contrasting stiffness identifies putative candidate genes involved in microfibril orientation and cell wall mechanics. BMC Genomics 12:480PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Li YC, Gou ZX, Liu ZS, Tang YQ, Akamatsu T, Kida K (2014) Synergistic effects of TAL1 over-expression and PHO13 deletion on the weak acid inhibition of xylose fermentation by industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. Biotechnol Letts 36:2011–2021Google Scholar
  67. Liu C, Li Y, Hou Y (2019) Effects of alkalinity of ionic liquids on the structure of biomass in pretreatment process. Wood Sci Technol 53:177–789Google Scholar
  68. Liu F, Liu Q, Xu J, Li L, Cui YT, Lang R, Li L, Su Y, Miao S, Sun H, Qiao B, Wang A, Jerome F, Zhang T (2018) Catalytic cascade conversion of furfural to 1,4-pentanediol in a single reactor. Green Chem 20:1770–1776Google Scholar
  69. Liu ZL (2018) Understanding the tolerance of the industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae against a major class of toxic aldehyde compounds. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 102:5369–5390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Lopes AM, Ferreira Filho EX, Moreira LR (2018) An update on enzymatic cocktails for lignocellulose breakdown. J Appl Microbiol 125:632–645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Luo Z, Bao J (2015) Secretive expression of heterologous β-glucosidase in Zymomonas mobilis. Bioresour. Bioproc 2:29Google Scholar
  72. Luterbacher JS, Rand JM, Alonso DM, Han J, Youngquist JT, Maravelias CT, Pfleger BF, Dumesic JA (2014) Non-enzymatic sugar production from biomass using biomass derived γ-valerolactone. Science 343:277–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Madhavan A, Tamalampudi S, Ushida K, Kanai D, Katahira S, Srivastava A, Fukuda H, Bisaria VS, Kondo A (2009) Xylose isomerase from polycentric fungus Orpinomyces: gene sequencing, cloning, and expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bioconversion of xylose to ethanol. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 82(6):1067–1078PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Malgas S, Thoresen M, van Dyk JS, Pletschke BI (2017) Time dependence of enzyme synergism during the degradation of model and natural lignocellulosic substrates. Enzyme Microb Technol 103:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Mans R, Daran JM, Pronk JT (2018) Under pressure: evolutionary engineering of yeast strains for improved performance in fuels and chemicals production. Curr Opin Biotechnol 50:47–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Mariscal R, Maireles-Torres P, Ojeda M, Sádaba I, Granados ML (2016) Furfural: a renewable and versatile platform molecule for the synthesis of chemicals and fuels. Energy Environ Sci 9:1144–1189Google Scholar
  77. Mathew S, Aronsson A, Karlsson EN, Adlercreutz P (2018) Xylo-and arabinoxylooligosaccharides from wheat bran by endoxylanases, utilisation by probiotic bacteria, and structural studies of the enzymes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 102:3105–3120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Mayes HB, Knott BC, Crowley MF, Broadbelt LJ, Ståhlberg J, Beckham GT (2016) Who’s on base? Revealing the catalytic mechanism of inverting family 6 glycoside hydrolases. Chem Sci 7:5955–5968PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Méndez Arias J, Modesto LF, Polikarpov I, Pereira N Jr (2016) Design of an enzyme cocktail consisting of different fungal platforms for efficient hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse: optimization and synergism studies. Biotechnol Prog 32:1222–1229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Mhetras N, Mapare V, Gokhale D (2019) Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) as emerging prebiotics: its production from lignocellulosic material. Adv Microbiol 9:14–20Google Scholar
  81. Mishra A, Kumar A, Ghosh S (2018) Energy assessment of second generation (2G) ethanol production from wheat straw in Indian scenario. 3 Biotech 8: Article No. 142Google Scholar
  82. Mohr A, Raman S (2013) Lessons from first generation biofuels and implications for the sustainability appraisal of second generation biofuels. Energy policy 63:114–122PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Morais AR, Bogel-Lukasik R (2013) Green chemistry and the biorefinery concept. Sustainable Chem Proc 1:18Google Scholar
  84. Mueller SC, Brown RM (1980) Evidence for an intramembrane component associated with a cellulose microfibril-synthesizing complex in higher plants. The J Cell Biol 84:315–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Nagraj AK, Singhvi M, RaviKumar V, Gokhale D (2014) Optimization studies for enhancing cellulase production by Penicillium janthinellum mutant EU2D-21 using response surface methodology. BioResources 9(2):1914–1923Google Scholar
  86. Nie Y, Hou Q, Li W, Bai C, Bai X, Ju M (2019) Efficient synthesis of furfural from biomass using SnCl4 as catalyst in ionic liquid. Molecules 24:594PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Nielsen J, Keasling JD (2016) Engineering cellular metabolism. Cell 164:1185–1197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Paye JM, Guseva A, Hammer SK, Gjersing E, Davis MF, Davison BH, Olstad J, Donohoe BS, Nguyen TY, Wyman CE, Pattathil S (2016) Biological lignocellulose solubilization: comparative evaluation of biocatalysts and enhancement via cotreatment. Biotechnol Biofuels 9:8PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Payne CM, Knott BC, Mayes HB, Hansson H, Himmel ME, Sandgren M, Stahlberg J, Beckham GT (2015) Fungal cellulases. Chem Rev 115:1308–1448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Pereira LG, Dias MO, Mariano AP, Maciel Filho R, Bonomi AM (2015) Economic and environmental assessment of n-butanol production in an integrated first and second generation sugarcane biorefinery: fermentative versus catalytic routes. Appl Energy160:120-131Google Scholar
  91. Polizeli MDLTM, Somera AF, Lucas RCD, Nozawa MSF, Michelin M (2017) In: Advances of basic science for second generation bioethanol from sugarcane. Ed. M.S. Buckeridge and A.P. Souza, Springer, Cham: Springer, pp-55-79Google Scholar
  92. Quiroz-Castañeda RE, Folch-Mallol JL (2013) Hydrolysis of biomass mediated by cellulases for the production of sugars. Sustainable degradation of lignocellulosic biomass techniques, applications and commercialization, ed. A. Chandel and SS Da Silva, India, 119-55Google Scholar
  93. Ragauskas AJ, Beckham GT, Biddy MJ, Chandra R, Chen F, Davis MF, Davison BH, Dixon RA, Gilna P, Keller M, Langan P (2014) Lignin valorization: improving lignin processing in the biorefinery. Science 344:1246843PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Richard T, Chisti Y, Somerville C, Blanch HW, Babcock B (2012) The food versus fuel debate. Biofuels 3:635–648Google Scholar
  95. Richmond TA, Somerville CR (2000) The cellulose synthase superfamily. Plant physiol 124:495–498PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Richmond TA, Somerville CR (2001) Integrative approaches to determining Csl function. Plant cell walls .Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 131-143Google Scholar
  97. Rigoldi F, Donini S, Redaelli A, Parisini E, Gautieri A (2018) Engineering of thermostable enzymes for industrial applications. APL Bioeng 2:011501PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Rinaldi R, Jastrzebski R, Clough MT, Ralph J, Kennema M, Bruijnincx PC, Weckhuysen BM (2016) Paving the way for lignin valorisation: recent advances in bioengineering, biorefining and catalysis. Ang Chem International Ed 55:8164–8215Google Scholar
  99. Rogers PL, Lee KJ, Skotnicki ML, Tribe DE (1982) Ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis. In: Microbial reactions Springer. Heidelberg pp, Berlin, pp 37–84Google Scholar
  100. Rubin EM (2008) Genomics of cellulosic biofuels. Nature454:841-845Google Scholar
  101. Rulli MC, Bellomi D, Cazzoli A, De Carolis G, D’Odorico P (2016) The water-land-food nexus of first-generation biofuels. Sci Rep 6:22521PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Salvachúa D, Mohagheghi A, Smith H, Bradfield MF, Nicol W, Black BA, Biddy MJ, Dowe N, Beckham GT (2016) Succinic acid production on xylose-enriched biorefinery streams by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch fermentation. Biotechnol Biofuels 9:28PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Satari B, Karimi K, Kumar R (2019) Cellulose solvent-based pretreatment for enhanced second-generation biofuel production: a review. Sustainable Energy Fuels 3:11–62Google Scholar
  104. Satyanarayana KG, Arizaga GG, Wypych F (2009) Biodegradable composites based on lignocellulosic fibers—an overview. Prog polym Sci 34:982–1021Google Scholar
  105. Scheller HV, Ulvskov P. (2010) Hemicelluloses. Annual review of plant biology. May 4:61.Google Scholar
  106. Schirmer A, Rude MA, Li X, Popova E, Del Cardayre SB (2010) Microbial biosynthesis of alkanes. Science 329:559–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Searcy E, Flynn P, Ghafoori E, Kumar A (2007) The relative cost of biomass energy transport. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 137:639–652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Serrano-Ruiz JC, Luque R, Sepúlveda-Escribano A (2011) Transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules: from high added-value chemicals to fuels via aqueous-phase processing. Chem Soc Rev 40:5266–5281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Shi J, Thompson VS, Yancey NA, Stavila V, Simmons BA, Singh S (2013) Impact of mixed feedstocks and feedstock densification on ionic liquid pretreatment efficiency. Biofuels 4:63–72Google Scholar
  110. Shui ZX, Qin H, Wu B, Ruan ZY, Wang LS, Tan FR, Wang JL, Tang XY, Dai LC, Hu GQ, He MX (2015) Adaptive laboratory evolution of ethanologenic Zymomonas mobilis strain tolerant to furfural and acetic acid inhibitors. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol99:5739-5748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Singhvi M, Gokhale D (2013) Biomass to biodegradable polymer (PLA). RSC Adv 3:13558–13568Google Scholar
  112. Singhvi M, Joshi D, Adsul M, Varma A, Gokhale D (2010) D(-)lactic acid production from cellobiose and cellulose by Lactobacillus lactis mutant RM2-24. Green Chem 12:1106–1109Google Scholar
  113. Singhvi M, Zendo T, Sonomoto K (2018) Free lactic acid production under acidic conditions by lactic acid bacteria strains: challenges and prospects. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 102:5911–5924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Singhvi MS, Gokhale DV (2015) Biomass exploitation—a challenge finding its way to reality. Curr Sci 108:1593–1594Google Scholar
  115. Singhvi MS, Zinjarde SS, Gokhale DV (2019) Poly-Lactic acid (PLA): synthesis and biomedical applications. J Appl Microbiol  https://doi.org/10.1111/jam.14290 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Sokhansanj S, Hess JR (2009) Biomass supply logistics and infrastructure. Meth Mol Bio 581:1–25Google Scholar
  117. Sun N, Parthasarathi R, Socha AM, Shi J, Zhang S, Stavila V, Sale KL, Simmons BA, Singh S (2014) Understanding pretreatment efficacy of four cholinium and imidazolium ionic liquids by chemistry and computation. Green Chem 16:2546–2557Google Scholar
  118. Torget R, Walter P, Himmel M, Grohmann K (1991) Dilute-acid pretreatment of corn residues and short-rotation woody crops. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 28:75Google Scholar
  119. Vaishnav N, Singh A, Adsul M, Dixit P, Sandhu SK, Mathur A, Puri SK, Singhania RR (2018) Penicillium: the next emerging champion for cellulase production. Bioresour Technol Rep 2:131–140Google Scholar
  120. Wang M, Yu C, Zhao H (2016) Identification of an important motif that controls the activity and specificity of sugar transporters. Biotechnol Bioeng 113:1460–1467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Wang X, Gao Q, Bao J (2017) Enhancement of furan aldehydes conversion in Zymomonas mobilis by elevating dehydrogenase activity and cofactor regeneration. Biotechnol Biofuels 10:24PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. Wilson DB (2009) Cellulases and biofuels. Curr Opin Biotechnol 20:295–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Xia J, Yang Y, Liu CG, Yang S, Bai FW (2019) Engineering Zymomonas mobilis for robust cellulosic ethanol production. Trends Biotechnol 37(9):960–972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Xu P, Donaldson LA, Gergely ZR, Staehelin LA (2007) Dual-axis electron tomography: a new approach for investigating the spatial organization of wood cellulose microfibrils. Wood Sci Technol 41:101Google Scholar
  125. Xu Q, Resch MG, Podkaminer K, Yang S, Baker JO, Donohoe BS, Wilson C, Klingeman DM, Olson DG, Decker SR, Giannone RJ (2016) Dramatic performance of Clostridium thermocellum explained by its wide range of cellulase modalities. Sci Adv 2:e1501254PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. Xu S, Pan D, Wu Y, Song X, Gao L, Li W, Das L, Xiao G (2018) Efficient production of furfural from xylose and wheat straw by bifunctional chromium phosphate catalyst in biphasic systems. Fuel Processing Technol 175:90–96Google Scholar
  127. Xu Z, Lei P, Zhai R, Wen Z, Jin M (2019) Recent advances in lignin valorization with bacterial cultures: microorganisms, metabolic pathways, and bio-products. Biotechnol Biofuels 12:32PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. Yang S, Fei Q, Zhang Y, Contreras LM, Utturkar SM, Brown SD, Himmel ME, Zhang M (2016) Zymomonas mobilis as a model system for production of biofuels and biochemicals. Microb Biotechnol 9:699–717PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. Yang T, Li W, Liu Q, Su M, Zhang T, Ma J (2019) Synthesis of maleic acid from biomass-derived furfural in the presence of KBr/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) catalyst and hydrogen peroxide. BioResources 14:5025–5044Google Scholar
  130. Yee KL, Jansen LE, Lajoie CA, Penner MH, Morse L, Kelly CJ (2018) Furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural degradation using recombinant manganese peroxidase. Enzyme Microb Technol 108:59–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Yi X, Gu H, Gao Q, Liu ZL, Bao J (2015) Transcriptome analysis of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 reveals mechanisms of tolerance and detoxification of phenolic aldehyde inhibitors from lignocellulose pretreatment. Biotechnol Biofuels 8:153PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. Yoo CG, Pu Y, Ragauskas AJ (2017) Ionic liquids: promising green solvents for lignocellulosic biomass utilization. Curr Opin Green Sustainable Chem 5:5–11Google Scholar
  133. Zhang K, Lu X, Li Y, Jiang X, Liu L, Wang H (2019) New technologies provide more metabolic engineering strategies for bioethanol production in Zymomonas mobilis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol103(5):2087-2099PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Zhang M, Eddy C, Deanda K, Finkelstein M, Picataggio S (1995) Metabolic engineering of a pentose metabolism pathway in ethanologenic Zymomonas mobilis. Science 267:240–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Zhang Z, Harrison MD, Rackemann DW, Doherty WO, O’Hara IM (2016) Organosolv pretreatment of plant biomass for enhanced enzymatic saccharification. Green Chem 18:360–381Google Scholar
  136. Zhao N, Bai Y, Liu CG, Zhao XQ, Xu JF, Bai FW (2014) Flocculating Zymomonas mobilis is a promising host to be engineered for fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Biotechnol J9:362–371Google Scholar
  137. Zhou J, Olson DG, Argyros DA, Deng Y, van Gulik WM, van Dijken JP, Lynd LR (2013) Atypical glycolysis in Clostridium thermocellum. Appl Environ Microbiol 79:3000–3008PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. Zhou X, Li W, Mabon R, Broadbelt LJ (2017) A critical review on hemicellulose pyrolysis. Energy Technol 5:52–79Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Bioinformatics and BiotechnologySavitribai Phule Pune UniversityPuneIndia
  2. 2.NCIM Resource CenterCSIR-National Chemical LaboratoryPuneIndia

Personalised recommendations