Moulds on cementitious building materials—problems, prevention and future perspectives

  • Raffaella CampanaEmail author
  • Luigia Sabatini
  • Emanuela Frangipani


Materials rich in organic and inorganic compounds, such as building materials or paints, represent an excellent substrate for the development of moulds. Several conditions affect mould’s growth on cementitious materials, such as nutrient and water availability, temperature, pH and moisture. Microorganisms, and especially moulds, attack these surfaces and contribute to their erosion, thereby reducing the life of the structure itself and negatively affecting human health through inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact with spores. Interventions are based on The European Communities Council Directive 89/106/EEC, that obliges the use of materials, products and building elements that are resistant to fungi and other forms of degradation, and that do not constitute a health risk for users and the environment. This mini-review summarises the current state of problems related to mould growth on cementitious building materials, emphasising new innovative approaches for limiting or contrasting their growth. In particular, the use of nanoparticles and the related nanomaterials as well as the potential use of new “biocides” from natural sources is discussed.


Building cementitious materials Mould growth Human health Innovative approaches 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Division of Pharmacology and HygieneUniversity of UrbinoUrbino (PU)Italy

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