Effects of sialylated lactulose on the mouse intestinal microbiome using Illumina high-throughput sequencing
Sialylated oligosaccharides are known to have beneficial effects, such as increasing the level of bifidobacteria, reducing the levels of blood endotoxin and blood ammonia, and enhancing the body’s immune system. However, it is unknown whether sialylated lactuloses have modulatory effects on the intestinal microbiota. In this study, 60 healthy mice were randomly divided into six groups, namely, a normal control group, a lactulose group, a Kdn-α2,3-lactulose group, a Kdn-α2,6-lactulose group, a Neu5Ac-α2,3-lactulose group, and a Neu5Ac-α2,6-lactulose group. After 14 days of lactulose administration, the feces of three mice from each group were collected, and the intestinal microbiota were detected by Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing targeting the V3–V4 region of the 16S rDNA gene. At the phylum level, the relative abundance of Firmicutes was increased in the sialylated lactulose groups, while the abundance of Bacteroidetes was decreased. At the family level, sialylated lactulose intervention decreased the relative abundance of Bacteroidales S24-7 group and Helicobacteraceae and enhanced the abundance of Lactobacillaceae, which reflects the modulatory effect of sialylated lactulose on intestinal microbiota. Diversity analysis indicated that the index of Chao was higher in the sialylated lactulose groups than in the normal control group, and the Shannon and Simpson diversity indices were higher in the Kdnα-2,6-lactulose group and the Neu5Ac-α2,3-lactulose group than in the normal control group. The results of the intestinal microbiota sample composition indicated that there were differences between the sialylated lactulose groups and the normal control group. Thus, sialylated lactulose could be used as a functional food component with potential therapeutic applications in manipulating intestinal microbiota to exert beneficial effects on the host’s health.
KeywordsHigh-throughput sequencing Sialylated lactulose Intestinal microbiota Composition and structure Health
The authors express their appreciation to Dr. Hai Yu (Department of Chemistry, University of California-Davis, USA) and Dr. Hongzhi Cao (National Glycoengineering Research Center in Shandong University, China) for kindly providing the enzymes used in the experiments and for useful suggestions regarding the experimental designs.
We declare that this work was done by all of the authors named in this article and that all liabilities pertaining to claims relating to the content of this article will be borne by the authors. JZ and HG conceived and designed the experiments; MS, TJ, and JJ conducted the research, performed the experiments, and analyzed the data; HG and RZ contributed materials and analysis tools; MS and JZ wrote the paper. JZ and GL revised the article and had primary responsibility for the final content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This work is financially supported by the Program for Innovative Research Talents (in Science and Technology) of the University of Henan Province (grant number 16HASTIT015); the Excellent Youth Foundation of the Henan Scientific Committee (grant number 174100510003); the Academic Talent Program of Henan Institute of Science and Technology (grant number 205010617006); and the Science and Technology Projects in Henan Province (grant number 19A550007).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
All animal procedures were implemented according to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institute of Health as well as the Guide of the Animal Welfare Act and were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of China Three Gorges University.
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