Dielectric property measurements as a method to determine the physiological state of Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae stressed with furan aldehydes
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Cell physiology parameters are essential aspects of biological processes; however, they are difficult to determine on-line. Dielectric spectroscopy allows the on-line estimation of viable cells and can provide important information about cell physiology during culture. In this study, we investigated the dielectric property variations in Kluyveromyces marxianus SLP1 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ERD yeasts stressed by 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde and 2-furaldehyde during aerobic growth. The dielectric properties of cell permittivity, specific membrane capacitance (Cm), and intracellular conductivity (σIn) were considerably affected by furan aldehydes in the same way that the cell population, viability, cell size, substrate consumption, organic acid production, and respiratory parameters were. The yeasts stressed with furan aldehydes exhibited three physiological states (φ): adaptation, replicating, and nonreplicating states. During the adaptation state, there were small and stable signs of permittivity, Cm, and σIn; additionally, no cell growth was observed. During the replicating state, cell growth was restored, and the cell viability increased; in addition, the permittivity and σIn increased rapidly and reached their maximum values, while the Cm decreased. In the nonreplicating state, the permittivity and σIn were stable, and Cm decreased to its minimum value. Our results demonstrated that knowing dielectric properties allowed us to obtain information about the physiological state of the cells under control and stressed conditions. Since the permittivity, Cm, and σIn are directly associated with the physiological state of the yeast, these results should contribute to a better understanding of the stress response of yeasts and open the possibility to on-line monitor and control the physiological state of the cell in the near future.
KeywordsPhysiology state Furan aldehydes Stress response Dielectric spectroscopy Kluyveromyces marxianus Saccharomyces cerevisiae
This study was funded by the “Fondo de Sustentabilidad Energética” Projects 245750 and 249564 CONACYT-SENER. Flores-Cosío Guillermo received a grant from CONACYT, México.
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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