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Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 103, Issue 23–24, pp 9217–9228 | Cite as

Amelioration of TMAO through probiotics and its potential role in atherosclerosis

  • Ahmad Ud Din
  • Adil Hassan
  • Yuan Zhu
  • Tieying Yin
  • Hans Gregersen
  • Guixue WangEmail author
Mini-Review

Abstract

Atherosclerosis is a major cause of mortalities and morbidities worldwide. It is associated with hyperlipidemia and inflammation, and become chronic by triggering metabolites in different metabolic pathways. Disturbance in the human gut microbiota is now considered a critical factor in the atherosclerosis. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) attracts attention and is regarded as a vital contributor in the development of atherosclerosis. TMAO is generated from its dietary precursors choline, carnitine, and phosphatidylcholine by gut microbiota into an intermediate compound known as trimethylamine (TMA), which is then oxidized into TMAO by hepatic flavin monooxygenases. The present review focus on advances in TMAO preventing strategies through probiotics, including, modulation of gut microbiome, metabolomics profile, miRNA, or probiotic antagonistic abilities. Furthermore, possible recommendations based on relevant literature have been presented, which could be applied in probiotics and atherosclerosis-preventing strategies.

Keywords

Gut microbiota Atherosclerosis TMAO Probiotics TMA lyases 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are also thankful for the support from the Chongqing Engineering Laboratory in Vascular Implants and the Public Experiment Center of State Bioindustrial Base (Chongqing).

Funding information

This study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11572064, 31771599), the National Key Technology R&D Program of China (2016YFC1102305, 2018YFC0114408), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2018CDPTCG0001-10).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

The article does not contain experiments which include human or animals.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmad Ud Din
    • 1
  • Adil Hassan
    • 1
  • Yuan Zhu
    • 1
  • Tieying Yin
    • 1
  • Hans Gregersen
    • 1
  • Guixue Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Bio-rheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Vascular ImplantsBioengineering College of Chongqing UniversityChongqingChina

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