Optimization of bacterial nanocellulose fermentation using recycled paper sludge and development of novel composites
In this work, recycled paper sludge (RPS), composed of non-recyclable fibres, was used as a carbon source for bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) production. The biomass was enzymatically hydrolysed with Cellic CTec 2 to produce a sugar syrup with 45.40 g/L glucose, 1.69 g/L cellobiose and 2.89 g/L xylose. This hydrolysate was used for the optimization of BNC fermentation by static culture, using Komagataeibacter xylinus ATCC 700178, through response surface methodology (RSM). After analysis and validation of the model, a maximum BNC yield (5.69 g/L, dry basis) was obtained using 1.50% m/v RPS hydrolysate, 1.0% v/v ethanol and 1.45% m/v yeast extract/peptone (YE/P). Further, the BNC obtained was used to produce composites. A mixture of an amino-PolyDiMethylSiloxane-based softener, polyethyleneglycol (PEG) 400 and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO), was incorporated into the BNC membranes through an exhaustion process. The results show that BNC composites with distinct performances can be easily designed by simply varying the polymers percentage contents. This strategy represents a simple approach towards the production of BNC and BNC-based composites.
KeywordsBacterial nanocellulose Sludge Composites Soybean Polymers
The authors thank Europac (Viana do Castelo, Portugal) for the supply of RPS.
This study was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) under the scope of the strategic funding of UID/BIO/04469/2019, UID/CTM/00264/2019; the project SkinShip - “Dispositivo de microfluídica inovador baseado em celulose capaz de suportar a modelação 3D de pele”, with reference PTDC/BBB-BIO/1889/2014 (funded by the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER) through the Competitiveness and Internationalization Operational Program - COMPETE 2020, the Lisbon Regional Operational Program and by National Funds through the FCT - Foundation for Science and Technology under the project POCI-01-0145-FEDER-016595); and Multibiorefinery PAC (SAICTPAC/0040/2015) and BUILD – Bacterial cellulose Leather (NORTE-01-0247-FEDER-003435) and BioTecNorte operation (NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000004) funded by the European Regional Development Fund under the scope of Norte2020 - Programa Operacional Regional do Norte.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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