Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 103, Issue 17, pp 7111–7128 | Cite as

Genome sequence of Isaria javanica and comparative genome analysis insights into family S53 peptidase evolution in fungal entomopathogens

  • Runmao Lin
  • Xi Zhang
  • Bei Xin
  • Manling Zou
  • Yaoyao Gao
  • Feifei Qin
  • Qiongbo Hu
  • Bingyan XieEmail author
  • Xinyue ChengEmail author
Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics


The fungus Isaria javanica is an important entomopathogen that parasitizes various insects and is effective for pest control. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the genomes (IJ1G and IJ2G) of two I. javanica strains isolated from different insects. The genomes were approximately 35 Mb in size with 11,441 and 11,143 protein-coding genes, respectively. Using a phylogenomic approach, we evaluated genome evolution across five entomopathogenic fungi in Cordycipitaceae. By comparative genome analysis, it was found that family S53 serine peptidases were expanded in Cordycipitaceae entomopathogens, particularly in I. javanica. Gene duplication events were identified based on phylogenetic relationships inferred from 82 S53 peptidases within six entomopathogenic fungal genomes. Moreover, we found that carbohydrate-active enzymes and proteinases were the largest secretory protein groups encoded in the I. javanica genome, especially chitinases (GH18), serine and aspartic peptidases (S53, S08, S10, A01). Pathogenesis-related genes and genes for bacterial-like toxins and secondary metabolites were also identified. By comparative transcriptome analysis, differentially expressed genes in response to insect nutrients (in vitro) were identified. Moreover, most S53 peptidases were detected to be significantly upregulated during the initial fungal infection process in insects (in vivo) by RT-qPCR. Our results provide new clues about understanding evolution of pathogenic proteases and may suggest that abundant S53 peptidases in the I. javanica genome may contribute to its effective parasitism on various insects.


Isaria javanica Entomopathogen Serine peptidase S53 family Gene family expansion Gene duplication Genome evolution 


Authors’ contributions

L.R. assembled and annotated the genomic and transcriptomic data. L.R. and X.C. analysed the genomic data. X.Z. and M.Z. performed RT-qPCR. B. Xin and F.Q. prepared fungal materials, and Y.G. prepared insect materials. Q.H. provided the fungal strains. X. C, R.L. and X.Z. wrote the manuscript. B. Xie and X.C. designed the research and revised the manuscript.


The research was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development (R&D) Plan of China (2018YFD0200802, 2016YFC1201100).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

Ethical statements

This paper is an original work. It has not been submitted elsewhere and under consideration in any other Journal. It does not contain any studies with human participants or vertebrates performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

253_2019_9997_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (731 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 731 kb)
253_2019_9997_MOESM2_ESM.xls (7 mb)
ESM 2 (XLS 7182 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Life SciencesBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.South China Agricultural UniversityGuangzhouChina
  4. 4.Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological EngineeringBeijingChina

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