Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by native Ganoderma sp. strains: identification of metabolites and proposed degradation pathways
Since polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic, they are of considerable environmental concern. A biotechnological approach to remove such compounds from polluted ecosystems could be based on the use of white-rot fungi (WRF). The potential of well-adapted indigenous Ganoderma strains to degrade PAHs remains underexplored. Seven native Ganoderma sp. strains with capacity to produce high levels of laccase enzymes and to degrade synthetic dyes were investigated for their degradation potential of PAHs. The crude enzymatic extracts produced by Ganoderma strains differentially degraded the PAHs assayed (naphthalene 34—73%, phenanthrene 9—67%, fluorene 11—64%). Ganoderma sp. UH-M was the most promising strain for the degradation of PAHs without the addition of redox mediators. The PAH oxidation performed by the extracellular enzymes produced more polar and soluble metabolites such as benzoic acid, catechol, phthalic and protocatechuic acids, allowing us to propose degradation pathways of these PAHs. This is the first study in which breakdown intermediates and degradation pathways of PAHs by a native strain of Ganoderma genus were determined. The treatment of PAHs with the biomass of this fungal strain enhanced the degradation of the three PAHs. The laccase enzymes played an important role in the degradation of these compounds; however, the role of peroxidases cannot be excluded. Ganoderma sp. UH-M is a promising candidate for the bioremediation of ecosystems polluted with PAHs.
KeywordsPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Ganoderma sp. Laccase Intermediate metabolites Degradation pathways
The authors are grateful to the financial support of the following grants: the BOF-BILA grant from Hasselt University for G. Torres-Farradá, the UHasselt Methusalem project 08M03VGRJ and to the International Foundation for Sciences (IFS, Sweden) (grant F/4442-2). The authors are also grateful to the technical support of Carine Put and Ann Wijgaerts.
This work was supported by a BOF BILA grant from Hasselt University for G. Torres Farradá, by the UHasselt Methusalem project 08M03VGRJ, and by the International Foundation for Sciences (IFS, Sweden) (grant F/4442-2).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
No ethical approval is required since this article does not have studies with animals or humans.
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