Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 103, Issue 17, pp 6973–6987 | Cite as

Optimization and characterization of red pigment production from an endophytic fungus, Nigrospora aurantiaca CMU-ZY2045, and its potential source of natural dye for use in textile dyeing

  • Nakarin Suwannarach
  • Jaturong Kumla
  • Yuzo Nishizaki
  • Naoki Sugimoto
  • Jomkwan Meerak
  • Kenji Matsui
  • Saisamorn LumyongEmail author
Biotechnological products and process engineering


Some of the most important natural pigments have been produced from fungi and used for coloring in food, cosmetics, textiles, and pharmaceutical products. Forty-seven isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from Cinnamomum zeylanicum in northern Thailand. Only one isolate, CMU-ZY2045, produced an extracellularly red pigment. This isolate was identified as Nigrospora aurantiaca based on morphological characteristics and the molecular phylogenetic analysis of a combined four loci (large subunit and internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA, β-tubulin, and translation elongation factor 1-alpha genes). The optimum conditions for red pigment production from this fungus were investigated. The results indicated that the highest red pigment yield was observed in the liquid medium containing glucose as a carbon source and yeast extract as a nitrogen source, at a pH value of 5.0 and at 27 °C with shaking for 5 days. The crude red pigment revealed the highest level of solubility in methanol. A fungal red pigment was found to have high stability at temperatures ranging from 20 to 50 °C and pH values at a range of 5.0–6.0. Based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, the red pigment was characterized as bostrycin. The extracted pigment was used for the textile dyeing process. Crude fungal red pigment revealed the highest staining ability in cotton fabrics and displayed excellent fastness to washing, which showing negative cytotoxicity at the concentrations used to cell culture. This is the first report on bostrycin production from N. aurantiaca.


Bostrycin Fungal pigment Solubility Stability Textile dye 



We are grateful to Mr. Russell K. Hollis for English proofreading.


This work was supported by grants from the Chiang Mai University, Center of Excellence on Biodiversity (BDC), Office of Higher Education Commission (BDC-PG2–159010), National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT) and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) in Core-to-Core Program (Establishment of an international research core for new bio-research fields with microbes from tropical area).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors

Supplementary material

253_2019_9926_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (301 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 301 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nakarin Suwannarach
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jaturong Kumla
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yuzo Nishizaki
    • 3
  • Naoki Sugimoto
    • 3
  • Jomkwan Meerak
    • 1
  • Kenji Matsui
    • 4
  • Saisamorn Lumyong
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  2. 2.Center of Excellence in Microbial Diversity and Sustainable UtilizationChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  3. 3.Division of Food AdditivesNational Institute of Health SciencesKanagawaJapan
  4. 4.Graduate School of Science and Technology for Innovation, Faculty of AgricultureYamaguchi UniversityYamaguchiJapan
  5. 5.The Royal Society of ThailandAcademy of ScienceBangkokThailand

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