Gut bacteria of animals/pests living in polluted environments are a potential source of antibacterials
- 82 Downloads
The morbidity and mortality associated with bacterial infections have remained significant despite chemotherapeutic advances. With the emergence of drug-resistant bacterial strains, the situation has become a serious threat to the public health. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify novel antibacterials. The majority of antibiotics available in the market are produced by bacteria isolated from soil. However, the low-hanging fruit has been picked; hence, there is a need to mine bacteria from unusual sources. With this in mind, it is important to note that animals and pests such as cockroaches, snake, crocodiles, and water monitor lizard come across pathogenic bacteria regularly, yet flourish in contaminated environments. These species must have developed methods to defend themselves to counter pathogens. Although the immune system is known to possess antiinfective properties, gut bacteria of animals/pests may also offer a potential source of novel antibacterial agents, and it is the subject of this study. This paper discusses our current knowledge of bacteria isolated from land and marine animals with antibacterial properties and to propose untapped sources for the isolation of bacteria to mine potentially novel antibiotic molecules.
KeywordsCockroach Antibacterials Superbugs Infectious diseases Bacterial infections
The authors acknowledge Sunway University for support.
Compliance with ethical standards
Ethical approval and consent to participate
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by authors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Challinor VL, Bode HB (2015) Bioactive natural products from novel microbial sources. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1354:82–97Google Scholar
- Choi EJ, Nam SJ, Paul L, Beatty D, Kauffman CA, Jensen PR, Fenical W (2015) Previously uncultured marine bacteria linked to novel alkaloid production. Chem Biol 22(9):1270–1279Google Scholar
- Graça AP, Viana F, Bondoso J, Correia MI, Gomes L, Humanes M, Reis A, Xavier JR, Gaspar H, Lage OM (2015) The antimicrobial activity of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from the marine sponge Erylus deficiens (Astrophorida, Geodiidae). Front Microbiol 6:389Google Scholar
- Holmström C, Kjelleberg S (1999) Marine Pseudoalteromonas species are associated with higher organisms and produce biologically active extracellular agents. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 30(4):285–293Google Scholar
- Indira K, Jayalakshmi S, Gopalakrishnan A, Srinivasan M (2011) Biopreservative potential of marine Lactobacillus spp. Afr J Microbiol Res 5:2287–2296Google Scholar
- Ling LL, Schneider T, Peoples AJ, Spoering AL, Engels I, Conlon BP, Mueller A, Schaberle TF, Hughes DE, Epstein S, Jones M, Lazarides L, Steadman VA, Cohen DR, Felix CR, Fetterman KA, Millett WP, Nitti AG, Zullo AM, Chen C, Lewis K (2015) A new antibiotic kills pathogens without detectable resistance. Nature 517:455–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nicacio KJ, Ióca LP, Fróes AM, Leomil L, Appolinario LR, Thompson CC, Thompson FL, Ferreira AG, Williams DE, Andersen RJ, Eustaquio AS (2017) Cultures of the marine bacterium Pseudovibrio denitrificans Ab134 produce bromotyrosine-derived alkaloids previously only isolated from marine sponges. J Nat Prod 80(2):235–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nigam A, Gupta D, Sharma A (2014) Treatment of infectious disease: beyond antibiotics. Microbiol Res 169:643–651Google Scholar
- Schillinger U, Lücke FK (1989) Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus sake isolated from meat. Appl Environ Microbiol 55:1901–1906Google Scholar
- Sethi S, Kumar R, Gupta S (2013) Antibiotic production by microbes isolated from soil. Int J Pharm Sci Res 4:2967Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (2014) Antimicrobial resistance: global report on surveillance. https://www.who.int/drugresistance/documents/surveillancereport/en/. Accessed 8 Nov 2018
- World Health Organization (2016) Infectious diseases kill over 17 million people a year: WHO warns of global crisis. https://www.who.int/whr/1996/media_centre/press_release/en/. Accessed 8 Nov 2018
- World Health Organization (2019) The top 10 causes of death. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death. Accessed 8 Nov 2018