Application of the CRISPR/Cas system for genome editing in microalgae
Microalgae are arguably the most abundant single-celled eukaryotes and are widely distributed in oceans and freshwater lakes. Moreover, microalgae are widely used in biotechnology to produce bioenergy and high-value products such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), bioactive peptides, proteins, antioxidants and so on. In general, genetic editing techniques were adapted to increase the production of microalgal metabolites. The main genome editing tools available today include zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas nuclease system. Due to its high genome editing efficiency, the CRISPR/Cas system is emerging as the most important genome editing method. In this review, we summarized the available literature on the application of CRISPR/Cas in microalgal genetic engineering, including transformation methods, strategies for the expression of Cas9 and sgRNA, the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knock-in/knock-out strategies, and CRISPR interference expression modification strategies.
KeywordsCRISPR/Cas sgRNA Microalgae Genome editing Transformation
This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21878151), the Outstanding Youth Foundation of Jiangsu Natural Science Foundation (BK20160092), the Program for Innovative Research Teams in Universities of Jiangsu Province (2015), the Jiangsu Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Bio-Manufacture (XTE1829), and General Program on Natural Science Research Projects of Higher Education of Jiangsu (18KJB530007).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or experimental animals by any of the authors.
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