Temperature and humidity index (THI)-induced rumen bacterial community changes in goats
The rumen microbiome is thought to play an important role in maintaining normal gastrointestinal metabolism and nutrient absorption in ruminants. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of heat stress on the rumen microbiome of goats using 16S rRNA sequencing technology. Six female goats were randomly allocated into two control metabolic chambers: A and B (in which the temperature and humidity could be precisely controlled with a precision deviation of ± 0.5 °C and ± 5%, with three goats/chamber). Dynamic changes in the rumen bacterial community were detected under 16 gradually increasing temperature and humidity indexes (THIs). Heat stress had no significant effect on alpha diversity but affected the main phyla and genera of the goat rumen microbiota. With a deeper level of heat stress, the TH groups formed a distinct cluster that differed from that of the control check (CK) group. The dominant phylum transitioned from Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, and co-exclusion occurred between these two phyla. With the increase in THI, the content of probiotics in the Lachnospiraceae_ND3007_group (P < 0.05) decreased, and the abundance of pathogenic bacteria, such as Erysipelotrichaceae_UCG-004 and Treponema_2, increased; however, the difference between the groups was not significant (P > 0.05). Phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) was used to predict bacterial function, and we found that the ambient environment significantly affected the balance between carbohydrate and energy metabolism (P < 0.05). In conclusion, heat stress changed the composition of rumen microbes and affected metabolic function. This experiment provides a theoretical basis for exploring the effects of environmental factors on the rumen of goats.
KeywordsRumen Microbiome Heat stress Temperature and humidity index (THI) 16S rRNA
We thank Jinpeng Li and Guojun Wang for their powerful help during sample collection and Yunjia Li for graphics support.
This study was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0500508) and China Agriculture Research System (CARS-39-12).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All Experimental Animal Management Committee of Northwest A&F University guidelines for the care and experimental procedures of animals were followed.
- Anastassiades T, Rees-Milton K, Hopman WM (2017) The modified amino sugar N-butyryl glucosamine fed to ovariectomized rats preserves bone mineral through increased early mineralization, but does not affect body composition. Funct Foods Health Dis 7:795–815. https://doi.org/10.31989/ffhd.v7i10.377 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Caporaso JG, Lauber CL, Walters WA, Berg-Lyons D, Lozupone CA, Turnbaugh PJ, Fierer N, Knight R (2011) Global patterns of 16S rRNA diversity at a depth of millions of sequences per sample. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(Suppl 1):4516–4522. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1000080107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Do HT, Dao KT, Nguyen VKH, Le NG, Nguyen TMP, Le TL, Phung TN, van Straalen NM, Roelofs D, Truong NH (2017) Metagenomic analysis of bacterial community structure and diversity of lignocellulolytic bacteria in Vietnamese native goat rumen. Asian-Aust. J Anim Sci 31(5):738–747. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0174 Google Scholar
- Iqbal MW, Zhang Q, Yang Y, Li L, Zou C, Huang C, Lin B (2017) Comparative study of rumen fermentation and microbial community differences between water buffalo and Jersey cows under similar feeding conditions. J Appl Anim Res 46(1):740–748. https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2017.1394859 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kljak K, Pino F, Heinrichs AJ (2017) Effect of forage to concentrate ratio with sorghum silage as a source of forage on rumen fermentation, N balance, and purine derivative excretion in limit-fed dairy heifers. J Dairy Sci 100(1):213–223. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-11383 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kocherginskaya SA, Aminov RI, White BA (2001) Analysis of the rumen bacterial diversity under two different diet conditions using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, random sequencing, and statistical ecology approaches. Anaerobe 7(3):119–134. https://doi.org/10.1006/anae.2001.0378 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lacetera N, Segnalini M, Bernabucci U, Ronchi B, Vitali A, Tran A, Guis H, Caminade C, Calvete C, Morse A, Baylis M, Nardone A (2013) Climate induced effects on livestock population and productivity in the Mediterranean area. In: Navarra A, Tubiana L (eds) Regional assessment of climate change in the Mediterranean. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 135–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ovreås L, Forney L, Daae FL, Torsvik V (1997) Distribution of bacterioplankton in meromictic Lake Saelenvannet, as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified gene fragments coding for 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 63(9):3367–3373Google Scholar
- Ramayocaldas Y, Mach N, Lepage P, Levenez F, Denis C, Lemonnier G, Leplat JJ, Billon Y, Berri M, Doré J, Rogel-Gaillard C, Estellé J (2016) Phylogenetic network analysis applied to pig gut microbiota identifies an ecosystem structure linked with growth traits. ISME J 10(12):2973–2977. https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2016.77 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Seibert JT, Abuajamieh M, Sanz Fernandez MV, Johnson JS, Kvidera SK, Horst EA, Mayorga EJ, Lei S, Patience JF, Ross JW, Rhoads RP, Johnson RC, Lonergan SM, Perfield JW 2nd, Baumgard LH (2018) Effects of heat stress and insulin sensitizers on pig adipose tissue. J Anim Sci 96(2):510–520. https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/skx067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Soren NM, Sejian V, Terhuja M, Dominic G (2017) Enteric methane emission in sheep: process description and factors influencing production. In: Sejian V, Bhatta R, Gaughan J, Malik P, Naqvi S, Lal R (eds) Sheep production adapting to climate change. Springer, Singapore, pp 209–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Su J, Wei Y, Liu M, Liu T, Li J, Ji Y, Liang J (2014) Anti-hyperuricemic and nephroprotective effects of Rhizoma Dioscoreae septemlobae, extracts and its main component dioscin via regulation of mOAT1, mURAT1 and mOCT2 in hypertensive mice. Arch Pharm Res 37(10):1336–1344. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12272-014-0413-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar