Effects of bifidobacteria-produced exopolysaccharides on human gut microbiota in vitro
Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are carbohydrate polymers that are synthesized and present on the surface of bifidobacteria. Due to their potential applications in diverse sectors, such as food, biotechnology, cosmetics, and medicine, EPSs synthesized by bifidobacteria have recently attracted more attention. EPS production not only has benefits in food and health but also has effects on probiotics in the microbial ecosystem. In this study, we investigated the interaction between bifidobacteria EPSs and human gut microbiota in vitro using thin-layer chromatography, 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing, and gas chromatography. The results showed that human gut microbiota has the capacity to degrade EPSs, although the degradation rate was approximately 50% after fermenting for 48 h. On the other hand, EPSs regulate the human gut microbiota. Fermented samples in the VI_Bif group clustered together according to the bacterial community compared to the VI_Starch group, in which starch was added as a carbon source. The bifidobacteria EPS promoted the growth of phylum Deinococcus_Thermus, class Deinococci, order Deinococcales, and genus Coprococcus. EPSs also increased the production of propionic acid compared to the starch group. The detection results of Dionex ICS 5000 high-purity capillary ion chromatography system showed that EPSs had absorption peaks of fucose, rhamnose, galactose/acetyl glucosamine, glucose, and ribose, and the molecular proportion of these monosaccharides was approximately 2: 2: 440: 3: 53. The monosaccharide composition of this EPS appears to be more complex than previously reported for bifidobacteria EPS. Additional studies are needed to elucidate its structure and functions.
KeywordsBifidobacteria Exopolysaccharides Human gut microbiota High-throughput sequencing
The authors would like to thank LetPub (www.letpub.com) for providing linguistic assistance during the preparation of this manuscript.
This study was funded by the Key Research and Development Plan of Zhejiang Province (2017C02G4010648), the Hunan Natural Science Foundation (No. 2018JJ3200), and the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 31741109).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Zhejiang Gongshang University research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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