Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 103, Issue 3, pp 1379–1391 | Cite as

Mitochondrial genome of the entomophthoroid fungus Conidiobolus heterosporus provides insights into evolution of basal fungi

  • Yong Nie
  • Lin Wang
  • Yue Cai
  • Wei Tao
  • Yong-Jie ZhangEmail author
  • Bo HuangEmail author
Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics


Entomophthoroid fungi represent an ecologically important group of fungal pathogens on insects. Here, the whole mitogenome of Conidiobolus heterosporus, one of the entomophthoroid fungi, was described and compared to those early branching fungi with available mitogenomes. The 53,364-bp circular mitogenome of C. heterosporus contained two rRNA genes, 14 standard protein-coding genes, 26 tRNA genes, and three free-standing ORFs. Thirty introns interrupted nine mitochondrial genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrion-encoded proteins revealed that C. heterosporus was most close to Zancudomyces culisetae in the Zoopagomycota of basal fungi. Comparison on mitogenomes of 23 basal fungi revealed great variabilities in terms of mitogenome conformation (circular or linear), genetic code (codes 1, 4, or 16), AT contents (53.385.5%), etc. These mitogenomes varied from 12.0 to 97.3 kb in sizes, mainly due to different numbers of genes and introns. They showed frequent DNA rearrangement events and a high variability of gene order, although high synteny and conserved gene order were also present between closely related species. By reporting the first mitogenome in Entomophthoromycotina and the second in Zoopagomycota, this study greatly enhanced our understanding on evolution of basal fungi.


Conidiobolus heterosporus Mitochondrial genome Basal fungi Phylogeny Evolution 


Funding information

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 31272096, 31471821, 31572060, and 31872162), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province (201601D011065), and the Research Project Supported by Shanxi Scholarship Council of China (2017-015).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

253_2018_9549_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (24 kb)
ESM 1 (XLSX 24 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Pest ControlAnhui Agricultural UniversityHefeiChina
  2. 2.School of Civil Engineering and ArchitectureAnhui University of TechnologyMa’anshanChina
  3. 3.School of Life ScienceShanxi UniversityTaiyuanChina
  4. 4.Department of Biological and Environmental EngineeringHefei UniversityHefeiChina
  5. 5.School of Forestry and Landscape ArchitectureAnhui Agricultural UniversityHefeiChina

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