Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 103, Issue 2, pp 731–745 | Cite as

Process for symbiotic culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chlorella vulgaris for in situ CO2 mitigation

  • Angéla LaEmail author
  • Patrick Perré
  • Behnam Taidi
Biotechnological products and process engineering


Industrial biotechnology relies heavily on fermentation processes that release considerable amounts of CO2. Apart from the fact that this CO2 represents a considerable part of the organic substrate, it has a negative impact on the environment. Microalgae cultures have been suggested as potential means of capturing the CO2 with further applications in high-value compounds production or directly for feed applications. We developed a sustainable process based on a mixed co-dominant culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chlorella vulgaris where the CO2 production and utilization controlled the microbial ecology of the culture. By mixing yeast and microalga in the same culture, the CO2 is produced in dissolved form and is available to the microalga avoiding degassing and dissolution phenomena. With this process, the CO2 production and utilization rates were balanced and a mutual symbiosis between the yeast and the microalga was set up in the culture. In this study, the reutilization of CO2 and growth of C. vulgaris was demonstrated. The two organism populations were balanced at approximately 20 × 106 cells ml−1 and almost all the CO2 produced by yeast was reutilized by microalga within 168 h of culture. The C. vulgaris inoculum preparation played a key role in establishing co-dominance of the two organisms. Other key factors in establishing symbiosis were the inoculum ratio of the two organisms and the growth medium design. A new method allowed the independent enumeration of each organism in a mixed culture. This study could provide a basis for the development of green processes of low environmental impact.


Photo-bioreactor Flow cytometer Medium design Autotrophy Heterotrophy Co-dominant culture 



The authors would like to thank the Département de la Marne, Région Grand Est, and Grand Reims for their financial support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Statement of informed consent, human/animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Declaration of authors’ agreement

The authors declare their agreement to authorship and submission of the manuscript for peer review.

Supplementary material

253_2018_9506_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (266 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 265 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LGPM, CentraleSupélecUniversité Paris-SaclayGif-Sur-YvetteFrance
  2. 2.LGPM, CentraleSupélec, Paris-Saclay, Centre Européen de Biotechnologies et de Bioéconomie (CEBB)PomacleFrance

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