Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 103, Issue 2, pp 535–547 | Cite as

Microbial β-mannosidases and their industrial applications

  • Diandra Albuquerque Lopes Costa
  • Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira FilhoEmail author


Heteropolymers of mannan are polysaccharide components of the plant cell wall of gymnosperms and some angiosperms, including palm trees (Arecales and Monocot). Degradation of the complex structure of these polysaccharides requires the synergistic action of enzymes that disrupt the internal carbon skeleton of mannan and accessory enzymes that remove side chain substituents. However, complete degradation of these polysaccharides is carried out by an exo-hydrolase termed β-mannosidase. Microbial β-mannosidases belong to families 1, 2, and 5 of glycosyl hydrolases, and catalyze the hydrolysis of non-reducing ends of mannose oligomers. Besides, these enzymes are also involved in transglycosylation reactions. Because of their activity at different temperatures and pH values, these enzymes are used in a variety of industrial applications and the pharmaceutical, food, and biofuel industries.


β-Mannosidase Glycosyl hydrolase Mannan Polysaccharide Transglycosylation 


Funding information

The authors acknowledge the receipt of financial support from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), and the Foundation for Research Support of the Federal District (FAPDF).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

This article does not contain any studies with human participants of animals performed by any of the authors.


  1. Ademark P, Lundqvist J, Hägglund P, Tenkanen M, Torto N, Tjerneld F, Stålbrand H (1999) Hydrolytic properties of a beta-mannosidase purified from Aspergillus niger. J Biotechnol 75:281–289. Google Scholar
  2. Ademark P, De Vries RP, Hägglund P, Stålbrand H, Visser J (2001) Cloning and characterization of Aspergillus niger genes encoding an alpha-galactosidase and a beta-mannosidase involved in galactomannan degradation. Eur J Biochem 268:2982–2990. Google Scholar
  3. Aditiya HB, Mahlia TMI, Chong WT, Nur H, Sebayang AH (2016) Second generation bioethanol production: a critical review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 66:631–653. Google Scholar
  4. Aehle W (2004) Enzymes in industry. Wiley-VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  5. Akino T, Nakamura N, Horikoshi K (1988) Characterization of β-mannosidase of an alkalophilic Bacillus sp. Agric Biol Chem 52:1459–1464. Google Scholar
  6. Amore A, Giacobbe S, Faraco V (2013) Regulation of cellulase and hemicellulase gene expression in fungi. Curr Genomics 14:230–249. Google Scholar
  7. Amore A, Giacobbe S, Liguori R, Faraco V (2014) The second generation ethanol production. Rend Accad Naz Sci XL Mem Sci Fis Naur 37:113–136. Google Scholar
  8. Arai M, Fujimoto H, Ooi T, Ogura S, Murao S (1995) Purification and properties of a β-mannosidases from Aspergillus aculeatus. J Appl Glycosci 42:49–51. Google Scholar
  9. Araraki M, Kitamikado T (1988) Exo-1,4-beta-mannanase from Aeromonas hydrophila. Methods Enzymol 160:583–589. Google Scholar
  10. Asano I, Hamaguchi K, Fujii S, Iino K (2003) In vitro digestibility and fermentation of mannooligosaccharides from coffee mannan. Food Sci Technol Res 9:62–66. Google Scholar
  11. Aspinall GO (1959) Structural chemistry of the hemicelluloses. In: Wolfrom ML (ed) Advances in carbohydrate chemistry, 1st edn. Academic Press, New York, pp 429–526Google Scholar
  12. Aspinall GO, Hirst EL, Percival EGV, Williamson IR (1953) The mannans of ivory nut ( Phytelephas macrocarpa). Part I. The methylation of mannan A and mannan B. J Chem Soc 0:3184–3188. Google Scholar
  13. Aspinall GO, Rashbrook RB, Kessler G (1958) The Mannans of ivory nut (Phytelephas macrocarpa). Part II. The partial acid hydrolysis of mannas A and B. J Chem Soc.
  14. Bai X, Hu H, Chen H, Wei Q, Yang Z, Huang Q (2014) Expression of a β-mannosidase from Paenibacillus polymyxa A-8 in Escherichia coli and characterization of the recombinant enzyme. PLoS One 9:e111622. Google Scholar
  15. Bajpai P (2004) Biological bleaching of chemical pulps. Crit Rev Biotechnol 24:1–58. Google Scholar
  16. Bauer MW, Bylina EJ, Swanson RV, Kelly RM (1996) Comparison of a β-glucosidase and a β-mannosidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. J Biol Chem 271:23749–23755. Google Scholar
  17. Béki E, Nagy I, Vanderleyden J, Jäger S, Kiss L, Fülöp L, Hornok L, Kukolya J (2003) Cloning and heterologous expression of a β-d-mannosidase (EC gene from Thermobifida fusca TM51. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:1944–1952. Google Scholar
  18. Bettiol JLP, Cooremans SPG, Johnstone KR, Sreekrishna K, Saunders CW, Herbots IVAJ, Baeck AC (2002) Laundry detergent compositions comprising a saccharide gum degrading enzyme. Procter & Gamble. N° US 6.486.112 B1. CincinnateGoogle Scholar
  19. Bissaro B, Monsan P, Fauré R, O’Donohue MJ (2015) Glycosynthesis in a waterworld: new insight into the molecular basis of transglycosylation in retaining glycoside hydrolases. Biochem J 467:17–35. Google Scholar
  20. Bouquelet S, Spik G, Montreuil J (1978) Properties of a β-D-mannosidase from Aspergillus niger. Biochim Biophys Acta 522:521–530. Google Scholar
  21. Brás NF, Fernandes PA, Ramos MJ (2009) Docking and molecular dynamics studies on the stereoselectivity in the enzymatic synthesis of carbohydrates. Theor Chem Accounts 122:283–296. Google Scholar
  22. Bremner I, Wilkie KCB (1971) The hemicelluloses of bracken: Part II. A galactoglucomannan. Carbohydr Res 20:193–203. Google Scholar
  23. Buckeridge MS (2010) Seed cell wall storage polysaccharides: models to understand cell wall biosynthesis and degradation. Plant Physiol 154:1017–1023. Google Scholar
  24. Buckeridge MS, Pessoa dos Santos H, Tiné MAS (2000a) Mobilisation of storage cell wall polysaccharides in seeds. Plant Physiol Biochem 38:141–156. Google Scholar
  25. Buckeridge MS, Tiné MAS, dos Santos HP, Lima DU (2000b) Cell wall storage polysaccharides in seeds. Structure, metabolism, function and ecological aspects. Rev Bras Fisiol Veg 12:137–162Google Scholar
  26. Chang PK, Ehrlich KC (2013) Genome-wide analysis of the Zn(II)2Cys6 zinc cluster-encoding gene family in Aspergillus flavus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97:4289–4300. Google Scholar
  27. Chudzikowski RJ (1971) Guar gum and its applications. J Soc Cosmet Chem 22:43–60Google Scholar
  28. Davies G, Henrissat B (1995) Structures and mechanisms of glycosyl hydrolases. Structure 3:853–859. Google Scholar
  29. De Pourcq K, De Schutter K, Callewaert N (2010) Engineering of glycosylation in yeast and other fungi: current state and perspectives. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 87:1617–1631. Google Scholar
  30. Demain AL, Vaishnav P (2009) Production of recombinant proteins by microbes and higher organisms. Biotechnol Adv 27:297–306. Google Scholar
  31. Dengler EC, Alberti LA, Bowman BN, Kerwin AA, Wilkerson JL, Moezzi DR, Limanovich E, Wallace JA, Milligan ED (2014) Improvement of spinal non-viral IL-10 gene delivery by d-mannose as a transgene adjuvant to control chronic neuropathic pain. J Neuro-Oncol 11:92. Google Scholar
  32. Dey PM (1978) Biochemistry of plant galactomannans. Adv Carbohydr Chem Biochem 35:341–376. Google Scholar
  33. Dhugga KS, Barreiro R, Whitten B, Stecca K, Hazebroek J, Randhawa GS, Dolan M, Kinney AJ, Tomes D, Nichols S, Anderson P (2004) Guar seed beta-mannan synthase is a member of the cellulose synthase super gene family. Science 303:363–366. Google Scholar
  34. Dias FM, Vincent F, Pell G, Prates JA, Centeno MS, Tailford LE, Ferreira LM, Fontes CM, Davies GJ, Gilbert HJ (2004) Insights into the molecular determinants of substrate specificity in glycoside hydrolase family 5 revealed by the crystal structure and kinetics of Cellvibrio mixtus mannosidase 5A. J Biol Chem 279:25517–25526. Google Scholar
  35. Do BC, Dang TT, Berrin JG, Haltrich D, To KA, Sigoillot JC, Yamabhai M (2009) Cloning, expression in Pichia pastoris, and characterization of a thermostable GH5 mannan endo-1,4-beta-mannosidase from Aspergillus niger BK01. Microb Cell Factories 8:59. Google Scholar
  36. Dotsenko GS, Semenova MV, Sinitsyna OA, Hinz SW, Wery J, Zorov IN, Kondratieva EG, Sinitsyn AP (2012) Cloning, purification, and characterization of galactomannan-degrading enzymes from Myceliophthora thermophila. Biochemistry (Mosc) 77:1303–1311. Google Scholar
  37. Duan X, Zou C, Wu J (2015) Triton X-100 enhances the solubility and secretion ratio of aggregation-prone pullulanase produced in Escherichia coli. Bioresour Technol 194:137–143. Google Scholar
  38. Duffaud GU, McCutchen CM, Leduc P, Parker KN, Kelly RM (1997) Purification and characterization of extremely thermostable beta-mannanase, beta-mannosidase, and alpha-galactosidase from the hyperthermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga neapolitana 5068. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:169–177Google Scholar
  39. Elbein AD, Adya S, Lee YC (1977) Purification and properties of a beta-mannosidase from Aspergillus niger. J Biol Chem 252:2026–2031Google Scholar
  40. Flemming JS, Freitas JRS, Fontoura P, Montanhini Neto R, Arruda JS (2004) Use of mannanoligosaccharides in broiler feeding. Rev Bras Cienc Avic 6:159–161. Google Scholar
  41. Fliedrová B, Gerstorferová D, Křen K, Weignerová L (2012) Production of Aspergillus niger β-mannosidase in Pichia pastoris. Protein Expr Purif 85:159–164. Google Scholar
  42. Fogh J, Irani M, Andersson C, Weigelt C (2003) Production of recombinant human lysosomal alpha-mannosidase. HemeBiotech. N° US2003/0199073. HillerodGoogle Scholar
  43. Franková L, Fry SC (2013) Biochemistry and physiological roles of enzymes that “cut and paste” plant cell-wall polysaccharides. J Exp Bot 64:3519–3550. Google Scholar
  44. Gille S, Cheng K, Skinner ME, Liepman AH, Wilkerson CG, Pauly M (2011) Deep sequencing of voodoo lily (Amorphophallus konjac): an approach to identify relevant genes involved in the synthesis of the hemicellulose glucomannan. Planta 234:515–526. Google Scholar
  45. Goettig P (2016) Effects of glycosylation on the enzymatic activity and mechanisms of proteases. Int J Mol Sci 17:1969. Google Scholar
  46. Gomes J, Terler K, Kratzer R, Kainz E, Steiner W (2007) Production of thermostable β-mannosidase by a strain of Thermoascus aurantiacus: isolation, partial purification and characterization of the enzyme. Enzym Microb Technol 40:969–975. Google Scholar
  47. Gomes AR, Byregowda SM, Veeregowda BM, Balamurugan V (2016) An overview of heterologous expression host systems for the production of recombinant proteins. Adv Anim Vet Sci 4:346–356. Google Scholar
  48. Gübitz GM, Hayn M, Sommerauer M, Steiner W (1996) Mannan-degrading enzymes from Sclerotium rolfsii: characterisation and synergism of two endo β-mannanases and a β-mannosidase. Bioresour Technol 58:127–135. Google Scholar
  49. Gustafsson C, Govindarajan S, Minshull J (2004) Codon bias and heterologous protein expression. Trends Biotechnol 22:346–353. Google Scholar
  50. Henrissat B, Bairoch A (1996) Updating the sequence-based classification of glycosyl hydrolases. Biochem J 316:695–696. Google Scholar
  51. Henrissat B, Davies G (1997) Structural and sequence-based classification of glycoside hydrolases. Curr Opin Struct Biol 7:637–644. Google Scholar
  52. Herve C, Rogowski A, Blake AW, Marcus SE, Gilbert HJ, Knox JP (2010) Carbohydrate-binding modules promote the enzymatic deconstruction of intact plant cell walls by targeting and proximity effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:15293–15298. Google Scholar
  53. Hu X, Shi Y, Zhang P, Miao M, Zhang T, Jiang B (2016) d-mannose: properties, production, and applications: an overview. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 15:773–785. Google Scholar
  54. Johnson WG (2014) Disorders of glycoprotein degradation: sialidosis, fucosidosis, α-mannosidosis, β-mannosidosis, and aspartylglycosaminuria. In: Rosenberg RN, Pascual JM (eds) Rosenberg’s molecular and genetic basis of neurological and psychiatric disease, 5th edn. Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp 369–383Google Scholar
  55. Jones MZ, Rathke EJS, Cavanagh K, Hancock LW (1984) Beta-mannosidosis: prenatal biochemical and morphological characteristics. J Inherit Metab Dis 7:80–85. Google Scholar
  56. Kamm B, Kamm M (2004) Principles of biorefineries. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 64:137–145. Google Scholar
  57. Kanamasa S, Takada G, Kawaguchi T, Sumitani J, Arai M (2001) Overexpression and purification of Aspergillus aculeatus beta-mannosidase and analysis of the integrated gene in Aspergillus oryzae. J Biosci Bioeng 92:131–137. Google Scholar
  58. Kanamasa S, Kawaguchi T, Takada G, Kajiwara S, Sumitani J, Arai M (2007) Development of an efficient production method for β-mannosidase by the creation of an overexpression system in Aspergillus aculeatus. Lett Appl Microbiol 45:142–147. Google Scholar
  59. Kaper T, van Heusden HH, van Loo B, Vasella A, van der Oost J, de Vos WM (2002) Substrate specificity engineering of beta-mannosidase and beta-glucosidase from Pyrococcus by exchange of unique active site residues. Biochemistry 41:4147–4155. Google Scholar
  60. Kulminskaya AA, Eneiskaya EV, Isaeva-Ivanova LS, Savel’ev AN, Sidorenko IA, Shabalin KA, Golubev AM, Neustroev KN (1999) Enzymatic activity and β-galactomannan binding property of β-mannosidase from Trichoderm reesei. Enzym Microb Technol 25:372–377Google Scholar
  61. Kurakake M, Komaki T (2001) Production of beta-mannanase and beta-mannosidase from Aspergillus awamori K4 and their properties. Curr Microbiol 42:377–380. Google Scholar
  62. Li YX, Liu Y, Yan QJ, Yang SQ, Jiang ZQ (2015) Characterization of a novel glycoside hydrolase family 5 β-mannosidase from Absidia corymbifera with high transglycosylation activity. J Mol Catal B Enzym 122:265–274. Google Scholar
  63. Liu L, Yang H, Shin HD, Chen RR, Li J, Du G, Chen J (2013) How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes: strategies and perspectives. Bioengineered 4:212–223. Google Scholar
  64. Mackie W, Sellen DB (1969) The degree of polymerization and polydispersity of mannan from the cell wall of the green seaweed codium fragile. Polymer 10:621–632. Google Scholar
  65. Madurwar MV, Ralegaonkar RV, Mandavgane SA (2013) Application of agro-waste for sustainable construction materials: a review. Constr Build Mater 38:872–878. Google Scholar
  66. McCleary BV (1983) Enzymic interactions in the hydrolysis of galactomannan in germinating guar: the role of exo-β-mannanase. Phytochemistry 22:649–658. Google Scholar
  67. Meier H, Reid JSG (2015) Reserve polyssacharides other than starch in higher plants. In: Pirson A, Zimmermann MH (eds) Encyclopedia of plant physiology, 1st edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 418–461Google Scholar
  68. Menzella HG (2011) Comparison of two codon optimization strategies to enhance recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli. Microb Cell Factories 10:15. Google Scholar
  69. Moreira LRS, Filho EXF (2008) An overview of mannan structure and mannan-degrading enzyme systems. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 79:165–178. Google Scholar
  70. Mudgil D, Barak S, Khatkar BS (2014) Guar gum: processing, properties, and food applications - a review. J Food Sci Technol 51:409–418. Google Scholar
  71. Mussatto SI, Ballesteros LF, Martins S, Teixeira JA (2012) Use of agro-industrial wastes in solid-state fermentation processes. In: Show KY (ed) Industrial Waste, 1st edn. InTech, Rijeka, pp 121–140Google Scholar
  72. Nascimento AS, Muniz JRC, Aparício R, Golubev AM, Polikarpov I (2014) Insights into the structure and function of fungal β-mannosidases from glycoside hydrolase family 2 based on multiple crystal structures of the Trichoderma harzianum enzyme. FEBS J 281:4165–4178Google Scholar
  73. Nishinari K, Takemasa M, Zhang H, Takahashi R (2007) Storage plant polysaccharides: xyloglucans, galactomannans, glucomannans. In: Kamerling JP (ed) Comprehensive glycoscience, 1st edn. Elsevier, New York, pp 613–646Google Scholar
  74. Oda Y, Tonomura K (1996) Characterization of β-mannanase and β-mannosidase secreted from the yeast Trichosporon cutaneum JCM 2947. Lett Appl Microbiol 22:173–178. Google Scholar
  75. Odetallah NH, Ferket PR, Grimes JL, McNaughton JL (2002) Effect of mannan-endo-1,4-beta-mannosidase on the growth performance of turkeys fed diets containing 44 and 48% crude protein soybean meal. Poult Sci 81:1322–1331. Google Scholar
  76. Ogawa M, Kobayashi T, Koyama Y (2012) ManR, a novel Zn(II)2Cys6 transcriptional activator, controls the β-mannan utilization system in Aspergillus oryzae. Fungal Genet Biol 49:987–995. Google Scholar
  77. Pan T, Coleman JE (1990) GAL4 transcription factor is not a “zinc finger” but forms a Zn(II)2Cys6 binuclear cluster. Proc Natl Acad Sci 87:2077–2081Google Scholar
  78. Park SH, Park KH, Oh BC, Alli I, Lee BH (2011) Expression and characterization of an extremely thermostable β-glycosidase (mannosidase) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus DSM3638. New Biotechnol 28:639–648. Google Scholar
  79. Pauly M, Keegstra K (2008) Cell-wall carbohydrates and their modification as a resource for biofuels. Plant J 54:559–568. Google Scholar
  80. Pauly M, Gille S, Liu L, Mansoori N, de Souza A, Schultink A, Xiong G (2013) Hemicellulose biosynthesis. Planta 238:627–642. Google Scholar
  81. Peberdy JF (1994) Protein secretion in filamentous fungi - trying to understand a highly productive black box. Trends Biotechnol 12:50–57. Google Scholar
  82. Prendecka M, Buczyńska A, Rogalski J (2007) Purification and characterization of β-mannosidases from white rot fungus Phlebia radiata. Pol J Microbiol 56:139–147Google Scholar
  83. Puupponen-Pimia R, Aura A-M, Oksman-Caldentey K-M, Mylläriner P, Saarela M, Mattila-Sandholm T, Poutanen K (2002) Development of functional ingredients for gut health. Trends Food Sci Technol 13:3–11. Google Scholar
  84. Qing Z (2012) The application of enzyme and yeast. Thesis, Saimaa University of Applied SciencesGoogle Scholar
  85. Rahmani N, Kashiwagi N, Lee J, Niimi-Nakamura S, Matsumoto H, Kahar P, Lisdiyanti P, Yopi PB, Ogino C, Kondo A (2017) Mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidase from Kitasatospora sp. isolated in Indonesia and its potential for production of mannooligosaccharides from mannan polymers. AMB Express 7:100. Google Scholar
  86. Reddy SK, Rosengren A, Klaubauf S, Kulkarni T, Karlsson EN, de Vries RP, Stålbrand H (2013) Phylogenetic analysis and substrate specificity of GH2 β-mannosidases from Aspergillus species. FEBS Lett 587:3444–3449. Google Scholar
  87. Rinaldi R, Schüth F (2009) Design of solid catalysts for the conversion of biomass. Energy Environ Sci 2:610–626. Google Scholar
  88. Rosano GL, Ceccarelli EA (2014) Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: advances and challenges. Front Microbiol 5:172. Google Scholar
  89. Rye CS, Withers SG (2000) Glycosidase mechanisms. Curr Opin Chem Biol 4:573–580. Google Scholar
  90. Sadh PK, Duhan S, Duhan JS (2018) Agro-industrial wastes and their utilization using solid state fermentation: a review. Bioresour Bioprocess 5:1. Google Scholar
  91. Saini JK, Saini R, Tewari L (2015) Lignocellulosic agriculture wastes as biomass feedstocks for second-generation bioethanol production: concepts and recent developments. 3 Biotech 5:337–353. Google Scholar
  92. Shallom D, Shoham Y (2003) Microbial hemicellulases. Curr Opin Microbiol 6:219–228. Google Scholar
  93. Shi P, Yao G, Cao Y, Yang P, Yuan T, Huang H, Bai Y, Yao B (2011) Cloning and characterization of a new β-mannosidase from Streptomyces sp. S27. Enzym Microb Technol 49:277–283. Google Scholar
  94. Shi H, Huang Y, Zhang Y, Li W, Li X, Wang F (2013) High-level expression of a novel thermostable and mannose-tolerant β-mannosidase from Thermotoga thermarum DSM 5069 in Escherichia coli. BMC Biotechnol 13:83. Google Scholar
  95. Silva COG, Vaz RP, Filho EXF (2017) Bringing plant cell wall-degrading enzymes into the lignocellulosic biorefinery concept. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin 12:277–289. Google Scholar
  96. Sjöström E (1993) Wood polysaccharides. In: Sjöström E (ed) Wood chemistry, fundamentals, and applications, 2nd edn. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 51–70Google Scholar
  97. Sone Y, Misaki A (1978) Purification and characterization of beta-d-mannosidase and beta-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase of Tremella fuciformis. J Biochem 83:1135–1144. Google Scholar
  98. Srivastava PK, Kapoor M (2017) Production, properties, and applications of endo-β-mannanases. Biotechnol Adv 35:1–19. Google Scholar
  99. Stephen AM (1983) Other plant polysaccharides. In: Aspinall GO (ed) The polysaccharides, 1st edn. Academic Press, New York, pp 97–180Google Scholar
  100. Su X, Schmitz G, Zhang M, Mackie RI, Cann IKO (2012) Heterologous gene expression in filamentous fungi. In: Sariaslani S, Gadd GM (eds) Advances in applied microbiology, 1st edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 2–44Google Scholar
  101. Sun Y, Cheng J (2002) Hydrolysis of lignpcellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review. Bioresour Technol 83:11. Google Scholar
  102. Sutton RL, Wilcox J (1998) Recrystallization in ice cream as affected by stabilizers. J Food Sci 63:104–107. Google Scholar
  103. Suurnäkki A, Tenkanen M, Buchert J, Viikari L (1997) Hemicellulases in the bleaching of chemical pulps. In: Scheper T (ed) Biotechnology in the pulp and paper industry, 1st edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 261–287Google Scholar
  104. Tailford LE, Money VA, Smith NL, Dumon C, Davies GJ, Gilbert HJ (2007) Mannose foraging by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron: structure and specificity of the β-mannosidase, BtMan2A. J Biol Chem 282:11291–11299. Google Scholar
  105. Tailford LE, Offen WA, Smith NL, Dumon C, Morland C, Gratien J, Heck MP, Stick RV, Blériot Y, Vasella A, Gilbert HJ, Davies GJ (2008) Structural and biochemical evidence for a boat-like transition state in β-mannosidases. Nat Chem Biol 4:306–312. Google Scholar
  106. Takada G, Kawaguchi T, Kaga T, Sumitani J, Arai M (1999) Cloning and sequencing of β-mannosidase gene from Aspergillus aculeatus no. F-50. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 63:206–209. Google Scholar
  107. Taylor JL, Jaquess PA, Lund H, Pedersen H, Xu H, Clemmoons J (2005) Use of hemicellulase composition in mechanical pulp production. Novozymes N° US 2005/0000666 A1. Buckman Laboratories International, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  108. Timell TE (1965) Wood hemicelluloses: part II. Adv Carbohydr Chem Biochem 20:409–483. Google Scholar
  109. Timell TE (1967) Recent progress in the chemistry of wood hemicelluloses. Wood Sci Technol 1:45–70. Google Scholar
  110. Todd RB, Andrianopoulos A (1997) Evolution of a fungal regulatory gene family: the Zn(II)2Cys6 binuclear cluster DNA binding motif. Fungal Genet Biol 21:388–405. Google Scholar
  111. Tramice A, Andreotti G, Giordano A, Trincone A (2009) Enzymatic transglycosylation. In: Flickinger MC (ed) Encyclopedia of industrial biotechnololgy, 1st edn. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  112. Van Immerseel F, Cauwerts K, Devriese LA, Haesebrouck F, Ducatelle R (2002) Feed additives to control Salmonella in poultry. Worlds Poult Sci J 58:501–513. Google Scholar
  113. Visser H, Joosten V, Punt PJ, Gusakov AV, Olson PT, Joosten R, Bartels J, Visser J, Sinitsyn AP, Emalfarb MA, Verdoes JC, Wery J (2011) Development of a mature fungal technology and production platform for industrial enzymes based on a Myceliophthora thermophila isolate, previously known as Chrysosporium lucknowense C1. Ind Biotechnol 7:214–224. Google Scholar
  114. Wan CC, Muldrey JE, Li SC, Li TH (1976) β-Mannosidase from the mushroom Polyporus sulfureus. J Biol Chem 251:4384–4388Google Scholar
  115. Wang L, Ridgway D, Gu T, Moo-Young M (2005) Bioprocessing strategies to improve heterologous protein production in filamentous fungal fermentations. Biotechnol Adv 23:115–129. Google Scholar
  116. Wang Y, Alonso AP, Wilkerson CG, Keegstra K (2012) Deep EST profiling of developing fenugreek endosperm to investigate galactomannan biosyaspinallnthesis and its regulation. Plant Mol Biol 79:243–258. Google Scholar
  117. Whistler RL (1993) Hemicelluloses. In: Whistler RL, BeMiller JN (eds) Industrial gums: polysaccharides and their derivatives, 3rd edn. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 295–308Google Scholar
  118. Wolfrom M, Laver ML, Patin DL (1961) Carbohydrates of the coffee bean. II. Isolation and characterization of a mannan. J Org Chem 26:4533–4535. Google Scholar
  119. Yamabhai M, Sak-Ubol S, Srila W, Haltrich D (2016) Mannan biotechnology: from biofuels to health. Crit Rev Biotechnol 36:32–42. Google Scholar
  120. Yin L, Verhertbruggen Y, Oikawa A, Manisseri C, Knierim B, Prak L, Jensen JK, Knox JP, Auer M, Willats WG, Scheller HV (2011) The cooperative activities of CSLD2, CSLD3, and CSLD5 are required for normal arabidopsis development. Mol Plant 4:1024–1037. Google Scholar
  121. York WS, Darvill AG, McNeil M, Stevenson TT, Albersheim P (1986) Isolation and characterization of plant cell walls and cell wall components. Methods Enzymol 118:3–40. Google Scholar
  122. Zhang M, Jiang Z, Li L, Katrolia P (2009) Biochemical characterization of a recombinant thermostable β-mannosidase from Thermotoga maritima with transglycosidase activity. J Mol Catal B Enzym 60:119–124. Google Scholar
  123. Zhao Q (2012) The application of enzyme and yeast. Thesis, Saimaa University of Applied SciencesGoogle Scholar
  124. Zhao W, Zheng J, Zhou HB (2011) A thermotolerant and cold-active mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidase from Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88: constitutive overexpression and high-density fermentation in Pichia pastoris. Bioresour Technol 102:7538–7547. Google Scholar
  125. Zhou P, Liu Y, Yan Q, Chen Z, Qin Z, Jiang Z (2014) Structural insights into the substrate specificity and transglycosylation activity of a fungal glycoside hydrolase family 5 β-mannosidase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 70:2970–2982. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Enzymology, Department of Cellular BiologyUniversity of BrasíliaBrasíliaBrazil

Personalised recommendations