Prospects for the use of spherical gold nanoparticles in immunization
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Recent years have seen extremely fast development of new viral nanovaccines and diagnostic agents using nanostructures prepared by biological and chemical synthesis. We used spherical gold nanoparticles (average diameter, 15 nm) as a platform for the antigen for swine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). The literature data demonstrate that immunization of animals with the TGEV antigen coupled to gold nanoparticles (GNPs) not only activates antigen-presenting cells but also increases the proliferative activity of splenic lymphoid (antibody-forming) cells. The contents of γ-IFN, IL-1β, and IL-6 in animals immunized with GNP-antigen conjugates were found to be higher than those in intact animals or in animals given the antigen alone. The increased concentration of IL-1β in the immunized animals directly correlated with the activity of macrophages and stimulated B cells, which produce this cytokine when activated. The increased concentration of IL-6 indicates that the injected preparations are stimulatory to cellular immunity. Immunization with the TGEV antigen conjugated to GNPs as a carrier activates the respiratory activity of lymphoid cells and peritoneal macrophages, which is directly related to their transforming activity and to the activation of antibody generation. Furthermore, the use of this conjugate allows marked improvement of the structure of the animals’ immune organs and restores the morphological–functional state of these organs. The microanatomical changes (increased number of follicles) indicate the activation of the B-dependent zone of the spleen and, consequently, the development of a humoral-type immunological reaction. The degradative processes observed in the animals immunized with TGEV antigen alone are evidence of weak resistance to pathogen attack. These results can be used to develop vaccines against this infection by employing TGEV antigen coupled to gold nanoparticles as a carrier.
KeywordsSwine transmissible gastroenteritis Virus antigen Immunization Guinea pig Gold nanoparticle Nanovaccine Immune system organs
This study was funded by the Russian Science Foundation (project no. 18-14-00016).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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