Efficient removal of atrazine from aqueous solutions using magnetic Saccharomyces cerevisiae bionanomaterial
A novel bionanomaterial comprising Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulated in a sodium alginate-polyvinyl alcohol (SA-PVA) matrix was synthesized for the efficient removal of atrazine from aqueous solutions. The effects of the operating parameters, nitrogen source, and glucose and Fe3+ contents on atrazine removal were investigated, and the intermediates were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the synthesized Fe3O4 particles were characterized by XRD, EDX, HR-TEM, FTIR, and hysteresis loops, and the bionanomaterial was characterized by SEM. The results showed that the maximum removal efficiency of 100% was achieved at 28 °C, a pH of 7.0, and 150 rpm with an initial atrazine concentration of 2.0 mg L−1 and that the removal efficiency was still higher than 95.53% even when the initial atrazine concentration was 50 mg L−1. Biodegradation was demonstrated to be the dominant removal mechanism for atrazine because atrazine was consumed as the sole carbon source for S. cerevisiae. The results of GC-MS showed that dechlorination, dealkylation, deamination, isomerization, and mineralization occurred in the process of atrazine degradation, and thus, a new degradation pathway was proposed. These results indicated that this bionanomaterial has great potential for the bioremediation of atrazine-contaminated water.
KeywordsAtrazine Biodegradation Bionanomaterial Intermediates Magnetic Pathway
Financial support from the International S&T Cooperation Program of China (Contract No.: 2015DFG92750) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.: 51478172, 51278464, and 51521006) is greatly appreciated.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights and informed consent
This article does not contain any studies with animal or human participants performed by any of the authors.
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