Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 102, Issue 15, pp 6525–6536 | Cite as

Biochemical and proteomic characterization of the extracellular enzymatic preparate of Exiguobacterium undae, suitable for efficient animal glue removal

  • Lenka Jeszeová
  • Vladena Bauerová-HlinkováEmail author
  • Peter Baráth
  • Andrea Puškárová
  • Mária Bučková
  • Lucia Kraková
  • Domenico PangalloEmail author
Biotechnologically relevant enzymes and proteins


In this work, we describe the preparation and characterization of a biopreparate for efficient and rapid animal glue removal. The biopreparate is based on the extracellular proteolytic enzymes of an Exiguobacterium undae environmental isolate. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the biopreparate is predominantly composed of hydrolytic enzymes—proteases and peptidases, nucleases, peptide ABC transporter substrate-binding proteins, and a phosphatase. The two main proteins present are bacillolysin and a peptide ABC transporter substrate-binding protein. Inhibition and proteomic analyses of the biopreparate revealed that bacillolysin, a neutral metalloendopeptidase, is mainly responsible for its proteolytic activity. This biopreparate was able to satisfactorily remove two types of animal glue from different kinds of material surfaces. These results suggest that this biopreparate could serve as a potential new tool for the restoration of historical objects rather than living microorganisms.


Exiguobacterium undae Animal glue Biodegradation Bacillolysin Extracellular proteome Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry 



The authors thank Dr. Zdenek Voburka (Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic) for N-terminal sequencing and Dr. Jacob A. Bauer for discussion and manuscript revision.

Funding information

The work was financially supported by the grant APVV-15-0528 “Modified polymers from renewable resources and their degradation.” This contribution is also the result of the project ITMS-26240220010 in the frame of the support program Research and Development of the European Regional Development Fund. A Slovak patent application form, No. PP50012-2018, has been applied for the E. undae biopreparate.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical statement

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

253_2018_9105_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.2 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 1218 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lenka Jeszeová
    • 1
  • Vladena Bauerová-Hlinková
    • 1
    Email author
  • Peter Baráth
    • 2
  • Andrea Puškárová
    • 1
  • Mária Bučková
    • 1
  • Lucia Kraková
    • 1
  • Domenico Pangallo
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Molecular BiologySlovak Academy of SciencesBratislavaSlovakia
  2. 2.Institute of ChemistrySlovak Academy of SciencesBratislavaSlovakia

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